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Title: Nutritional profiling and bioefficacy of edible coated iron-folate Fortified Rice
Authors: Ahmed, Waqas
Keywords: Food Technology
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Abstract: Instant research was an attempt to address iron deficiency anemia using the concept of dietary fortification with the application of edible coatings. Purposely, Super Basmati rice grains were used as a carrier for fortification activity whereas pectin and methyl cellulose based coatings were developed followed by the addition of iron salts (FeSO4 @ 30 and 50 ppm & NaFeEDTA @ 20 and 40 ppm) and folic acid (1.5 ppm). From the results, selected grains had 7.56±0.06% protein whilst, iron and zinc levels in the tested sample were 0.91±0.03 & 1.42±0.02mg/100g, respectively. Afterwards, fortified coatings were applied on grains and assessed for fortificants stability, cooking/eating quality attributes, pasting behavior, color tonality and hedonic response during 3 months storage. The maximum level of iron was recorded in T2 (Pectin coating fortified with 50 ppm FeSO4) as 4.85±0.02mg/100g, however, T0 (Control) had the minimum iron contents 0.84±0.01mg/100g. Likewise, storage exhibited significant differences on folic acid level that differed from 127.35±6.96μg/100g at initiation to 102.25±5.85μg/100g at termination, respectively. Cooking and eating quality traits were momentously affected with storage; maximum values for amylose contents and alkali spreading factor were 25.01±0.70g/100g and 4.09±0.02, recorded for T2 (Pectin coated; 50 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid) and T4 (Pectin coated; 40 ppm NaFeEDTA + 1.5 ppm folic acid). Additionally, elongation, volume expansion and water absorption ratios were improved during storage. Alongside, pasting behavior differed significantly due to storage, the maximum value for peak viscosity was recorded in T1 (Pectin coated: 30 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid) 2461.00±79.77cP whilst, peak and final viscosities improved from 2351.90±41.34 and 4000.39±22.13cP to 2504.70±44.03 and 4191.77±23.19cP at 0 to 90 days, respectively. Besides, mean squares for L, a*, b* color depicted significant variations with respect to storage. On contrary, mean squares regarding hedonic response of fortified treatments depicted non-momentous variations with respect to treatments and storage. Based on the findings of abovementioned traits, selected treatments from each combination were shortlisted for efficacy trial involving female Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental rats model was further subdivided into 2 phases; Phase I involving normal female rats whereas, Phase II comprised of female rats previously made anemic by the provision of iron deficient diet. In normal female rats, serum iron and ferritin values were significantly affected by groups and study intervals. The maximum value for serum iron levels was observed in G1 (Pectin coated: 50 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid) and G3 (Methyl Cellulose coated: 50 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid) by 132.35±3.20 and 131.72±2.89μg/dL, respectively. Over the efficacy trail, serum iron and ferritin levels improved from 114.37±3.11 to 137.44±3.20μg/dL & 41.09±1.34 to 71.80±2.16ng/mL at 0 to 60 days, respectively. Additionally, G1 had the highest percent increase in serum iron (13.99%) as compared to G0 (Control). Furthermore, the maximum values for total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation fraction were 427.21±8.79μg/dL and 33.88±1.91% as observed in G0 and G1, respectively. Hematological assay depicted that the highest value for hemoglobin and RBC was 14.04±0.26g/dL and 7.96±0.02M/μL noticed in G1 and G4, respectively. In phase II, mean squares for serum iron, ferritin, TIBC and TrSF in anemic female rats showed momentous variations with respect to both experimental groups and study intervals. The highest serum iron level was observed in G1a by 100.58±1.86μg/dL while the least in G0a (Anemic control) as 83.05±1.59μg/dL. During the efficacy trail, serum iron levels considerably improved from 90.35±1.82μg/dL at initiation to 100.87±1.54μg/dL at the end of study. Likewise, increase in serum ferritin level was witnessed 21.18±0.84 to 56.91±1.68ng/mL at 0 to 60 days, respectively. The maximum values for increase in serum iron were 21.13% and 20.30% in G1a (pectin coated: 50 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid) and G3a (Methyl cellulose coated: 50 ppm FeSO4 + 1.5 ppm folic acid), respectively against anemic control (G0a). Besides, for TIBC and TrSF, the maximum values were 513.69±10.70μg/dL and 21.77±1.92% reported in G0a (Anemic control) and G1a. Conclusively, it is inferred that iron fortification of dietary cereal using edible coatings is an effective approach to attenuate the prevalence of hidden hunger with special reference to iron deficiency. Moreover, the findings of instant research can be instrumental for researchers and other stake holders to further probe the concern of iron deficiency anemia.
Gov't Doc #: 13050
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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