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|SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF COTTON WHEAT RELAY CROPPING SYSTEM
Agriculture & related technologies
|UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
|A series of experiments were conducted at research area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan for consecutive two years during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The study was comprised of four experiments. The first experiment was comprised of five treatments i.e sowing of wheat at 7th November by conventional method (2 disc harrow - 1 rotavator - 2 planking- sowing with rabi drill) after the removal of cotton stalks (CTR1), sowing of wheat at 7th November by conventional method (2 disc harrow - 1 rotavator - 2 planking- sowing with rabi drill) after incorporating the cotton sticks (CTI1), sowing of wheat at 7th November in standing cotton with manual broadcast method (RCB), sowing of wheat at 15th December by conventional method (2 disc harrow - 1 rotavator - 2 planking- sowing with rabi drill) after the removal of cotton sticks (CTR2), and sowing of wheat at 15th December by conventional method (2 disc harrow - 1 rotavator - 2 planking- sowing with rabi drill) after incorporating the cotton sticks (CTR2). Second experiment was comprised of four sowing dates for relay cropped wheat in standing cotton (1st ,8th , 15th and 22nd of November) and three harvest ing dates of cotton sticks (40, 60 and 80 Days after sowing of wheat). Third experiment was comprised of three water soaking durations of wheat seed (6, 12 and 18 hours along with control) and three seed rates of wheat (100 ,125 and 150 kg ha-1). Experiment 4 was comprised of three sowing methods of cotton (flat, ridge and bed sowing) where wheat was sown as relay crop by manual broadcast in first week of November and three herbicides Topic (clodinofop propargyl) 15WP @ 300 g ha-1, Buctrill M (Bromoxynil + MCPA) 40 EC @ 825 ml ha-1 and Atlantus (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) 3.6% WG @ 400 g ha-1 for weed control in wheat. RCBD for first experiment, RCBD split plot design for second and forth experiment while in third experiment RCBD factorial design was used containing net plot size of 12 m × 6 m. Punjab-2011 (wheat variety) was used for wheat cultivation and FH-142 (cotton variety) was used for cultivation of cotton. Phosphorous in the form of DAP (110 kg/ha) and potash in the form of SOP (65 kg/ha) was used at the time of sowing of wheat while Nitrogen in the form of Urea and DAP (160 kg/ha) was used in three equal splits (at the time of sowing, 30 days after sowing of wheat and 60 days after sowing of wheat). Data of physical properties of soil, growth, root length, yield and grain quality were recorded by standard method. First experiment concluded that second treatment (7th November sowing of wheat after incorporating the cotton sticks) enhanced the grain yield, biological yield and thousand grain weight in comparison to other t reatments under study in both the year of experimentation. CTR1 and CTR2 produced higher values of soil water filled pore spaces, volumetric water content and bulk density of soil in comparison to other treatments under study. Root length, air filled pore spaces and total soil porosity were higher at the depth of 0-10 and 10-20 cm at crop harvest stage in CTI1, CTI2 and RCB as compared to other treatments. Penetration resistance of soil was higher in CTR1 and CTR2 compared to all tillage systems. Maximum protein contents were obtained CTR2 and CTI2 compared to other treatments in both years of experimentation. Tillage systems at 7th November and 15th December showed statistically non -significant on fat content i n both growing seasons. Du r i n g first growing season (2012-13) maximum BCR ( benefit cost ratio) was noted at CTR1 while maximum net rate of return and 3 net field benefit were obtained in RCB. In second year of experimentation maximum benefit cost ratio, n et rate of return and net field benefit were recorded in RCB. In second experiment 1st November and 8th November sowing of wheat in standing cotton gave higher biological yield, grain yield and 1000 grain wheat than other sowing dates while removal of cotton sticks 40 DAS (D40) of wheat produced higher grain yield than other removal dates of cotton sticks both year of study. In 2012-13 CGR and LAI at 75 days after sowing of wheat (DAS) while leaf area duration (LAD) and total dry matter (TDM) at 135 DAS of wheat was higher at 1st November sowing of wheat and D40 compared to all sowing dates and harvesting dates while in second growing season ( 2013-14) CGR and LAI and 75 days after planting while leaf area duration (LAD) and total dry matter (TDM) at 135 DAS of wheat was higher at 8th November sowing of wheat and D40 compared to all sowing dates of wheat and harvesting dates of cotton. NAR was higher at 22nd November sowing of wheat and harvesting of cotton sticks D60 and D80. 1st and 8t h November sowing along with D60 produced maximum benefit cast ratio. In third study first growing season (2012-13) produced 5 % greater grain yield than second growing season (2013-14). In both years of experimentation seed rate of wheat 150 kg ha-1 and 18 hours seed soaking duration of wheat gave higher grain yield, biological yield, benefit cost ratio than other seed rates and seed soaking durations. In the fourth experiment, flat sowing of cotton in first season and bed sowing of cotton in second year gave more grain and biological yield of wheat where Atlantis (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) 3.6% WG @ 400 g ha-1 was used as herbicide. During both study years bed sowing along with Atlantis herbicide produced maximum net return per ha while minimum net return was recorded in flat sowing along with Buctrill. During both study years bed sowing along with Atlantis produced maximum BCR. During first growing season (2012-13) flat sowing with Topic herbicide and bed sowing with bucktrill were dominated while all other treatments were un-dominated. In second growing season ridge sowing with Atlantis and bucktrill while bed sowing with bucktrill and weedy check (control) were dominated while all other treatments were un-dominated and can be recommended for general cultivation. Un-dominated treatments were selected in both growing seasons for marginal analysis. In first growing season flat sowing (7.7 %) at Atlantis, ridge sowing (10.8 %) at Topic and bed sowing at weedy check (54.9 %) provide maximum marginal rate of return (MRR). During second growing season flat sowing (28.1 %), ridge sowing (9.0 %) and bed sowing (36.8 %) at Atlantis provided higher MR R. On the basis of net returns and benefit cost ratio it is suggested to farmers that wheat should be sown during 1st to 8t h of November in relay cropping at 150 kg ha-1 seed rate which has 18 hours soaking duration and cotton sticks should be removed from the field 40 days after sowing of wheat. Cotton and wheat should be planted at beds where Atlantis 3.6% W G (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) @ 400 g ha-1 should be used to control narrow as well as broad leaf weeds.
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