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|Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process and Its Role in Mitigating Industrial Pollution
|UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
|This study was conducted in 2013-15 on three main industrial estates of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK). The purpose of the study was to analyze the current industrial set up, estimate pollution load/status i.e water, air and noise, and identify role of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in pollution abetment. For this purpose the three industrial estates were analyzed for three main categories include steel mill, paper industry and marble industries. Two surface water bodies i.e. Kabul River and Haro River, the receiving water bodies were also analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. Besides, three EIA reports were evaluated for its role in pollution abatement. Till 2012 there were 640 industrial units operational. EIA/IEE was conducted for 203 industries only. out of this three industries, for which EIA was conducted were analyzed in detail. Among these Paper mill was observed as polluted most industry. Instead of EIA, no mitigation measures were observed in paper mill. The total annual pollution load, calculated for paper and marble industry was 691 thousands and 7814 Kg respectively. Similarly air pollution and noise level was also observed high in steel industry with no mitigation measures. By comparing the various air and water parameters revealed that most of the industries were not complying with Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards (Pak-NEQS) or the list is incomplete or deficient. For example, Steel industries were studied for water recycling. From recycling point of view, two parameters, are important but not mentioned in the list of Pak-NEQS i.e. odor and turbidity. If we make these parameters part of the NEQS and address it properly then the water used in the steel mills can be recycled. After experimentation, to solve the problem of coliform baxteria and odor, KMnO4 was suggested. Occupational health and safety is also not mentioned in the IEE/EIA Regulations 2000. Therefore the situation of occupational health and safety is very poor. This revealed that EIA process is very deficit and has got no proactive or reactive role to combat environmental pollution. It is therefore recommended to revisit the Pak-NEQS and IEE/EIA Regulations for further improvement and make research and development process as part of the EIA process.
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|PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.
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