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Keywords: Social Sciences
Primary education
Secondry education
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the existing situation of EMIS in Pakistan to identify issues and problems to prepare a set of recommendations to policy makers for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of EMIS. The main objectives of this study were to assess the existing institutional infrastructure of EMISs in Pakistan, and to examine data management processes. The study also tried to assess EMIS data utilization by decision makers at various administrative levels in decision making to identify data gaps. The qualitative research method using case study approach was adopted. Multiple data collection sources such as review of related documents, interviews, and focus group discussions were used. Data was collected from 267 respondents across three levels of government i.e. federal, provincial and districts. Both structured and open-ended questions were used to get information from the respondents. The study found that most of EMISs in Pakistan were established in 1990 as a result of successful experience of a pilot EMIS project in the Province of NWFP. These EMISs were established as development projects and mostly sponsored by donors. Presently most of EMISs are funded by government. EMIS management structure varied significantly across the provinces. Annual data collection was only confined to public schools and carried out by provincial EMISs through district education management. The annual data collection was facilitated and coordinated by the district EMISs however, all major decisions relating to data management were taken by provincial EMISs. There was variation in the availability of resources in terms of human, financial and IT infrastructure among provinces and districts. Adequate professional staff and computer equipment were available in majority of the provinces however, most of the districts were deficient in these resources. Punjab and Sindh EMISs were well resourcedvi in terms of operating funds whereas EMISs in other provinces were constrained by operating budget. Key issues identified by this study were: Each province used different set of questionnaires for capturing data leading to inconsistency, using different and incompatible data entry and storage software, delay in provision of data to provinces and NEMIS, incomplete data coverage, non-availability of data on qualitative aspects of education, lack of standards for data management, limited data analysis capacity at all levels especially at district level, use of different processes and procedures by provinces for data validation and verification and lack of data verification system at district level. EMIS data was used at all administrative levels in various types of decisions such as situation analysis, target setting, budget preparation, formulation and appraisal of projects, textbooks distribution, construction of schools/classrooms, opening of new schools, and provision of basic facilities. The majority of data users at all administrative levels were satisfied with the quality of EMIS data, however, level of satisfaction with quality of data varied across administrative levels. The data gaps identified by users included enrolment by age, drop outs, students’ performance, and financial data. The study recommends the strengthening of EMISs at all levels especially at district level by providing adequate resources in terms of human, financial and equipment. Increase in data coverage through legal and administrative mandates for the districts, provincial and national EMISs to collect data from private schools, and other education institutions to develop a comprehensive database. Other education data sources should be integrated with EMIS databases at all levels to complement and support annual school data. There should be conformity and compatibility, through standards, in data capturing and coding, database structure, data entry and storage software, and data verification procedures. EMISs should focus on collecting qualitative data about schools’ process and students’ outcomes, as well as education finance data. The data reporting format should be made user friendly and it should contain analytical text and education indicators. The EMIS should evolve reporting and information dissemination strategy to provide information to all stakeholders in a suitable format.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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