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Keywords: Applied Sciences
Agriculture & related technologies
Garden crops(Horticulture)
Home & family management
Food & drink
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Abstract: Integrated plant nutrient management emphasizes the combined use of inorganic and organic/biological sources of plant nutrients to enhance efficiency of applied nutrients, reduce environmental hazards and improve crop productivity. A field experiment pertaining to wheat based cropping system in rainfed environment was conducted at the Research Farm of Soil Science & SWC of Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It was laid out according to randomized complete block design in Split-Plot arrangement with three replications. The experiment was initiated in winter 2004-05 on wheat followed by maize in summer 2005, and was repeated during the year 2005-06 in the same field with same layout of treatments. Main plot treatments of cropping systems (CS) included: wheat–fallow (CS 1 ) and wheat–maize (CS 2 ), while treatments of integrated plant nutrient management allocated to subplots were: control (without NPK fertilizer, FYM or biofertilizer); half dose of recommended N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O (60-45-30 kg ha -1 ) ; full dose of N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O (120-90-60 kg ha -1 ); FYM @ 20 t ha -1 , FYM on N requirement basis + make-up dose of P and K fertilizer; 1⁄2 NPK + 1⁄2 FYM (@ 10 t ha -1 ) ; 1⁄2 NPK + Biopower; 1⁄2 FYM + Biopower and 1⁄2 NPK + 1⁄2 FYM + Biopower. Soil analysis for physical and chemical characteristics and plant nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu) at sowing and harvest stage of each crop was performed. Observations on plant growth and yield parameters were recorded at crop maturity. Nutrient concentration in the grain and straw/stalk of the wheat and maize were determined to compute nutrient uptake after the harvest of each crop. Comparison of various treatment means of integrated nutrient management practices for wheat- fallow (CS 1 ) and wheat-maize (CS 2 ) cropping systems indicated that there was2 was significant increase in yield and various yield attributes of both wheat and maize in respective growing seasons. During Rabi seasons of 2004-05 and 2005- 06, application of 1⁄2 NPK + 1⁄2 FYM + Biopower (T 9 ) produced highest grain yield of 3684 kg ha -1 and 3781 kg ha -1 for wheat respectively. During Kharif seasons of 2005 and 2006, application of 1⁄2 NPK + 1⁄2 FYM + Biopower (T 9 ) produced highest grain yield of 3128 kg ha -1 and 3119 kg ha -1 for maize respectively. The analysis of leaf and grain samples showed significant increase in N, P and K concentration due to integrated nutrient management practices for both wheat and maize during both growing seasons over control. The results revealed that as N, P and K concentration in soil was higher; these were taken up and assimilated in proportion to their concentration. Maximum N uptake of 357 kg ha -1 , P uptake of 51 kg ha -1 and K uptake of 215 kg ha -1 was recorded due to application of 1⁄2 NPK + 1⁄2 FYM + Biopower (T 9 ) for wheat during both growing seasons. Micronutrients concentration recorded significant increase in soil, plant and grain of both wheat and maize. Economic analysis of wheat-maize and wheat-fallow cropping systems revealed that wheat-maize cropping system was more profitable with integrated use of mineral and organic and/or biofertilizer under rainfed conditions. The VCR estimated for IPNM in T 9 showed that integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizer sources had better net profit for wheat yield for the farmer under rainfed condition. Thus, IPNM may prove more viable and sustainable for wheat based cropping system in rainfed Pothowar environment of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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