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Authors: Munir, Hira
Keywords: Natural Sciences
Chemistry & allied sciences
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the pharmaceutical potential of wild and commercial gums. After the process of purification, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia modesta were selected for the present research among the eight initially selected gums. For the use of gum as binder in tablet the physiochemical characteristics such as pH, fluorescence analysis, swelling index and rheological studies were determined. Both selected gums were acidic in nature. D. sissoo and A. modesta showed light brown and creamy color in fluorescent analysis, respectively. The viscosity measurements were made by the rheological analysis and D. sissoo and A. modesta provide different rheological pattern. The aqueous solution of crude A. modesta was more viscous than D. sissoo. Carbohydrates were present in high concentrations determined through proximate and biochemical analysis. The elemental profiles of crude gums were studied by the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and significant number of elements was recorded. Crude gums exhibited a number of drawbacks in their application that can be overcome by hydrolyzed and modified to improve the functional properties of biopolymers. The selected gum were hydrolyzed (acidic, basic and enzymatic) and modified (polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation).The antioxidant activities of crude, hydrolyzed and modified gums were determined and the selected samples exhibited significant antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial, toxicological studies viz. antimutagenic and hemolytic analyses were performed. All the tested gums samples exhibit good antibacterial activity. All samples were found non-mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100, and did not show significant hemolytic activity. The structural characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscope, 12 thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning colorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The change in viscosity after hydrolysis and modification was analyzed by performing the flow test. There was a decrease in viscosity of crude gum after hydrolysis and modification. Gum based silver-nanoparticles were prepared on the basis of green chemistry principle and possess important microbial applications. Nanoparticles prepared by using both gum showed synergistic high antibacterial activity. The potential of D. sissoo and A. modesta to be used as tablet binder was determined. Bulk and tapped density, hausner’s ratio and carr’s index of the prepared granules were studied. After the formation of tablets, the weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release were determined. Hydroxypropyl Methycellulose (HPMC) is used as standard binder. The prepared tablets using gums showed faster and slower dissolution profiles in the same dissolution system. The crude gums have the highest dissolution rate. While the dissolution rate was decreased in the case of modified and hydrolyzed gum samples. The crude gums showing slower release can be useful in sustained release tablets as release controlling polymer / viscoslysing agent. And the hydrolyzed and modified gums having faster release rate are helpful in conventional tablet formulation. The current research comprehensively explored the selected gums for their application as biobinder as well as matrix for nanoparticles studies. In future, these results of selected gum may be used in pharmaceutical field on the pilot or industrial scale as biobinder and other applications like prebiotic for probiotics and green material for nanoscience etc.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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