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Keywords: Applied Sciences
Agriculture & related technologies
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan)
Abstract: This doctoral research plan (2008 to 2010) included comprehensive studies on two commercial mango cultivars of Pakistan including Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa with overall objective of evaluating controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions for sea-freighting mangoes to distant markets. The targeted areas included: a) Benchmark studies to monitor and document sea freight supply chain from farm to market (Germany); b) Evaluating impact of controlled and modified atmosphere storage conditions; c) Comparing open top vs. closed top boxes for sea freighting mangoes; e) Testing new chemistry fungicides for postharvest disease management, especially Stem End Rot (SER) in mango cv. Sufaid Chaunsa during long term storage and f) effects of pre-cooling on mango cv. Sufaid Chaunsa. Moreover, effect of harvest maturity (mid and late season harvest) on fruit quality and shelf life of Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa was also evaluated. Benchmarking studies showed that mango export supply chain to Europe (Germany) using Maersk shipping line requires about 35 days (Farm to retailing). The results revealed that poor skin colour development, skin shriveling, firmness retention in cv. Sindhri while disease development, mainly SER, (caused by organism: Botryodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis mangiferae) in both cultivars are main issues.. The static research trials were conducted side by side to address these issues and to optimize the sea shipment protocols. Controlled atmosphere storage had significant impact on physico-chemical fruit quality and improved market value and consumer acceptability of the two cvs. Exposure to ILOS (Initial low oxygen stress) for one week had no significant negative effect; however, a concentration of 10% CO2 was found to be too high and inhibited the fruit ripening completely. These studies indicated that 1-1.5% O2 and 4-5% CO2as better CA combination for cv. Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa mangoes, for 4 weeks shipping period, followed by 5-7 days for post arrival handling, ripening and retailing. Mid-season harvested fruit of both cultivars showed better response in terms of better fruit marketability, less disease development and retention of the firmness of stored fruit under CA and MA conditions. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) trials showed that X®-tend bagging can only suppress the disease development at ripening and can be used for sea shipping mangoes to short distance markets; however the fruit with skin bruises and damages must be avoided for bagging. The experiment on packing mangoes in different types of corrugated boxes concluded that open top boxes were better option for sea shipping of the two mango cvs. since fruit developed good colour in open top boxes. Moreover, cv. Sindhri showed better shipping potential with higher percentage of marketable fruit than cv. Sufaid Chaunsa, which is more prone to post harvest diseases during long term storage. Post-harvest disease study during long term storage in cv. Sufaid Chaunsa showed that the combined application of Thiabendazole @ 2000 ppm with Prochloraz @0.5ml/L (Tank mix; HWT-52°C; 5 min) had significant disease control (i.e. stem end rot, side rot and anthracnose). Concentrations of Thiabendazole alone (1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm) did not perform well in this regard. Postharvest application of new chemistry fungicides including Amistar (0.8 ml/L) (A.I. Azoxystrobin), Nativo (0.3 g/L) (A.I. Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole), Cabrio Top (3 g/L) (A.I. Pyraclostrobin and Metiram) and Scholar were also found to be effective against postharvest disease development in mango. Best control was achieved by Amistar against anthracnose and stem end rot. Moreover, immediate precooling after harvest and processing gave significantly improved disease control and less weight loss in cultivar Sufaid Chaunsa. Finally, during July 2012, an industry collaborated trial shipment of cv. Sindhri was made to a commercial importer in Netherlands in which learning outcomes of these studies were intergraded from harvest to maturity and to marketing. The shipment was overall success with positive comments from importer. Some incidence of pulp breakdown in mangoes at ripe stage was observed which needs future investigation.
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