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Title: Efficacy studies of zinc fortified edible coated apricots
Authors: Younas, Muhammad Sham
Keywords: Applied Sciences
Chemical engineering
Food technology
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: In present investigation, apricots from locally grown ‘Sufeda’ variety were treated with edible coatings; chitosan and alginate @ 1 and 2% levels along with zinc salts fortification i.e. zinc sulfate and zinc chloride @ 30 and 50 ppm concentration. The compositional analysis showed that apricot is a good source of protein, fiber, calcium and potassium. The zinc fortified chitosan coated apricots showed better control over weight & moisture loss, TSS contents, pH & acidity, organic acids and sugars as compared to alginate based coatings. Similarly, chitosan coatings were efficient in the distribution and adsorption of zinc to the apricot surface as contrast to alginate ones. The edible coated zinc fortified apricots were affected significantly during storage as exhibited by their physico-chemical analyses. The results depicted that the maximum zinc contents of fortified coated apricot was noticed in T12 (2% chitosan containing with 50 ppm ZnSO4) 4.83±0.24mg/100g followed by T16 (2% chitosan containing with 50 ppm ZnCl2) 4.82±0.21mg/100g, T4 (2% alginate containing with 50 ppm ZnSO4) 4.78±0.23mg/100g and T8 (2% alginate containing with 50 ppm ZnCl2) 4.77±0.12mg/100g, respectively as contrast to T0 (control) 0.26±0.02mg/100g. The sensory response of the fortified edible coated apricots was remained within range during storage. Afterwards, efficacy study was carried out in rabbits through two consecutive trials I & II for the validity of results. On the basis of in vitro analysis, HPLC characterization (citric & ascorbic acid and sugars) and zinc contents in edible coated zinc fortified apricots, four best treatments two from each coatings having different zinc salts T4, T8, T12 and T16 alongside control (unfortified apricots) were selected for the bio-evaluation trial. The consumption of zinc fortified chitosan and alginate coated apricots imparted substantial effect on feed & drink intake and body & organs weights during entire study. Likewise, serum and organs zinc contents of experimental rabbits were significantly improved by the provision of zinc fortified apricots with maximum serum zinc was observed in G3 (apricot containing 2% chitosan coating with 50 ppm ZnSO4), G1 (apricot containing 2% alginate coating with 50 ppm ZnSO4) G4 (apricot containing 2% chitosan coating with 50 ppm ZnCl2) and G2 (apricot containing 2% alginate coating with 50 ppm ZnCl2) as 89.71±2.26, 87.43±2.14, 83.51±2.41 and 81.49±2.46μg/dL, respectively as comparison to G0 as 72.56±2.85μg/dL. The percent increase in serum zinc was 24.63, 20.50, 15.09 and 12.31% in G3, G1, G4 and G2, respectively as comparison to G0. Similarly, liver zinc was noticed as 23.97±1.41, 23.71±1.15, 23.53±1.28 and 23.36±1.45μg/g in G3, G1, G4 and G2 as contrast to G0 by 22.42±1.36μg/g. Whilst in heart, maximum zinc was 17.59±0.55, 17.46±0.54, 17.22±0.42 and 17.18±0.46μg/g in G3, G1, G4 and G2 whereas, minimum in G0 as 17.11±0.50μg/g. Whereas in kidney, zinc contents in G3, G1, G4 and G2 were noticed as 25.18±1.23, 24.97±1.56, 24.65±1.11 and 24.40±1.30μg/g in association to G0 23.53±1.47μg/g. Results showed that percent increase in liver, heart and kidney zinc were 6.91, 2.84, 7.03 (G3); 5.72, 2.08, 6.12 (G1); 4.95, 0.66, 4.76 (G4) and 4.19, 0.43, 3.68% (G2), respectively compared to G0. The attenuation in serum glucose of rabbits is an indicator for the positive impact of zinc salts fortification on this trait. The lowest serum glucose was 111.79±4.48mg/dL in G3 nevertheless, maximum serum insulin 9.38±0.51μU/mL was observed in the same group. Similarly, the values for liver and kidney functions tests were within the normal range showing the safety of zinc fortified edible coated apricots. The hematological traits of rabbit’s blood also demonstrated normal values for red & white blood cell indices. From instant exploration, it is deduced that zinc fortification through edible coating is a pragmatic choice to overcome hidden hunger with special reference to zinc.
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