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Title: Development of anti-tick vaccine, its efficacy and immunological responses of horses in Quetta District, Balochistan, Pakistan
Authors: Kamran, Kashif
Keywords: Natural Sciences
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: University of Balochistan
Abstract: Zoonotic diseases have demonstrated to be one of the most severe threats to the survival of domestic animals. This has encouraged researchers and health policy makers to focus their efforts on the prevention and control of potential vectors worldwide. Hard ticks can transmit several deadly maladies to human-related hosts and to those species reported in these studies. This is becoming even more concerning, as anthropogenic alterations of the environment may unchain the spread of tick-borne diseases through the large region. Developing countries with a high dependency on livestock economy are a suitable hotspot for these problems. In this work, etiology, and tick vectoring diseases risk in the larger providence of Pakistan: Quetta District, Balochistan was studied. Through a cross-sectional approach, including bibliographic survey, field collection and epidemiologic questionnaire, five species of horse ticks were identified in this work, which are capable of disease transmission to equines and humans. In this work, also found a consistent lack of knowledge about the tick-transmitted illness as well as necessary precautionary measures among horse keepers. This thesis provides the most relevant risk factors found and the urgent actions needed to prevent the widespread of hard ticks and their associated zoonotic diseases. Chemically formulated pesticides are widely used in the control of synanthropic pest organisms. This is currently being discouraged by researchers based on several undesired consequences, such as impact on non-target organisms as well as the development of resistance against chemical formulation on pest species aimed to be controlled. Indiscriminate and widespread uses of acaricides have led to a dramatic loss of susceptibility of these zoonoses vectors towards these drugs around the world. For instance, it was reported in this studies that ivermectin and fipronil have been used regularly to control Hyalomma anatolicum (Ixodidae) for more than half a decade. This XI hard tick is recognized as a recurrent vector of a myriad of zoonotic diseases. In this work, acaricide resistance was evaluated as in vitro and in vivo bioassays for H. anatolicum towards ivermectin and fipronil pesticides in horse farms from Quetta District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Participatory epidemiology surveys were conducted with horse keepers in this region in order to assess its potential relationship with the development of acaricide resistance in H. anatolicum. Results of in vivo bioassay using in vivo tests revealed that fipronil had significantly increased fipronil efficacy than ivermectin by itself. Meanwhile, in vitro tests show moderate efficacies for fipronil and ivermectin. Overall, more than 80% mortality of ticks could not be achieved in any bioassays even at highest acaricide concentration, demonstrating the development of acaricide resistance against fipronil and ivermectin in this zoonoses vector ectoparasite. Based on questionnaire, it was discovered that people in charge of horse wellbeing did not follow acaricide manufacturer’s use recommendations and often applied indiscriminate doses of these chemical formulations. Further systematic epidemiology studies evaluating acaricide resistance are needed in order to control ticks and its pathogenic microorganisms around the world. In addition, it is stress on the urgency of the adoption of tick-borne zoonoses education as well as integrated pest control strategies in order to reduce current dependency on acaricides. The third objective of the present study was to develop a crude anti-tick vaccine against Hyalomma hard-bodied tick in Quetta District and to analyze relevant experimental data on immunized indigenous horse breed Morna. Montanide (ISA-50) adjuvant-based vaccine induced significantly (p < 0.02) higher antibody titre through the intradermal route with 99.98% vaccine efficacy. Humoral response was determined through indirect ELISA, where a peak level of serum antibody was recorded after six weeks interval of post-immunization. Most of the hematology and biochemical XII parameters remained consistent to normal reference values. This report also indicates a significant percentage decline in the numbers of engorged ticks, eggs mass, eggs number and increased tick rejection. The animal travel history can promote tick burden and is a potential risk factor. The 29-kDa antigen Montanide ISA 50 emulsified vaccine was found highly immunogenic and was successfully used for all life stages of ticks parasitized on horses. Hence, the development of this anti-tick vaccine for infested horse is a new addition in the field of tick vaccine following the standard protocols.
Gov't Doc #: 27671
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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