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Authors: BIBI, RUQIA
Keywords: Social sciences
Public policy issues in education
Secondary education
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: In teaching learning process, emphasis is laid mostly on teacher centered approach, whereas it is responsibility of learner to learn the material. Teacher’s job is to teach the students learning methods and strategies. Cognitive psychologists emphasize to use the cognitive and metacognitive strategies for learning. There is a variety of study strategies being used in the West, to understand, store, retrieve and use information. PQ4R study strategy is one of them. However, in Pakistan, no evidence could be found in the area of research regarding this study strategy. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of PQ4R study strategy on scholastic achievement of secondary school students in the subject of Pakistan Studies. The accessible population of the study was 10th grade girls students studying in Govt. Girls Secondary Schools in District Rawalpindi. The sample school was selected out of 121 schools of District Rawalpindi through random sampling, and a sample of 104 girl students was randomly selected out of 390 girls students studying in the school. It was a pre-test post-test control group design of study which involved two variables. The independent variable was the PQ4R study strategy and the dependent variable was the scholastic achievement of students. The main objectives of the study were to measure the scholastic achievement of students at secondary school level before the experiment, to expose the experimental group to PQ4R method of study, to teach the control group through traditional method without using PQ4R method, to measure the scholastic achievement of experimental group and control group after the treatment, to compare the scholastic achievement of experimental group and control group after the experiment and to compare the scholastic achievement of high achievers and low achievers of experimental group and the control group after the treatment. The high achievers and low achievers were identified by using first and third quartiles. The data collected through pre-test and post-test were summarized through the use of measures of central tendency and variability. Significance difference between both the comparison groups in pre-test and post-test was analyzed by using t-test at 0.05 level of confidence. How the comparison groups were alike and unlike each other was analyzed through overlapping between the two. The Study results indicated that PQ4R was any effective study strategy that improved the scholastic achievement of students. Both the high achievers and low achievers improved in their scholastic achievement, however, high achievers took more advantage than the low achievers. These results are in line with the results of some previously conducted research studies such as Salim (2010); Rahim, et al. (2010); Bagherpour, Abdollahzadeh and Valipour (2009); Rodil (2009); Lee (2004); Ping (2000); Katayama and Robinson (2000); King (1992) and Faryal (2005). Teachers are recommended to teach the students the use of PQ4R learning strategy while teaching the content, students are recommended to use this strategy while studying the material. Curriculum designers are suggested to use this strategy in designing the curriculum, and this is much neglected but rich area for future researchers.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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