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Title: Scientific Approach of Islamic World: Foundation, Evolution and Modern Challenges
Authors: Abdullah, Muhammad
Keywords: Social Sciences
Religious Studies
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore
Abstract: "Man’s restless nature always urges him to learn more and more from his surroundings, and this instinct of man gave birth to science. Science is the knowledge of the natural phenomena that comes from experience, observations, and intellect. Typically, science finds its roots in the civilizations of Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Sumerians, and Assyrians, but their science was simple and prototype. Later, Greeks and Romans added remarkable theories in the fields of science. The Greek’s mindset was philosophical without having any tendency of creating merely empirical things. The Greeks observed the world as imaginative phenomenon, instead of men of science. Consequently, the Greeco-Roman civilization was nonscientific. However, when it comes to the Holy Quran; this is not the book of science, but the book of signs. There are more than one thousand verses in Holy Quran that manifest natural phenomenon. Meanwhile, in this Holy Book Allah Almighty invites human beings to meditate and study the heavens, the earth, the mountains, the stars, the plants, the seeds, the animals, the alternation of night and day, the creation of man, the rains and many other frequent structures, so that they recognize The Noble Creator and cries out:""Our Lord, you have not created this in vain. 1"" Inviting towards the mysteries of the universe, Allah, the Exalted, says:""Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.2 ""During the great scientific and intellectual activity of the Middle Ages, the most important motivation was the Holy Qur'an which opened new avenues of knowledge and thoughts before man, trained the minds on the right lines and molded them into a special scientific and research framework. The Holy Qur'an invited man to unravel the mysteries of the universe and provided research tools and resources that ultimately proved to be a precursor to a living scientific thoughts and scientific zeal. Among the Medieval Muslim scientists, the element of realistic approach and action prevailed, and these actions were closely related to observations and experimentations. Meanwhile, this realistic approach and action caused a new milestone in the field of science. Achievements accelerated by their realistic approach and action revolutionized the field of science and added a golden chapter to medieval science and paved the way for the development of modern science. Medieval Muslim scientists enshrined experimental spirit in science. After 14th century the Muslim began to decline in science and technology. The thrust, spirit and quest for knowledge breathed it’s last in the Muslim world. At present Muslims lagged mostly in all fields of science. This dissertation reflects that development of scientific thoughts among medieval Muslim scientists was due to the powerful and effective intellectual stimulus of ""The Holy Qur'an and the teachings of the Holy Prophet"", which invited Muslims to study and observe the universe. This also highlights that the medieval Muslim scientists were the inventers of the scientific instruments and pioneer of experimental method in scientific knowledge. Moreover, it also evaluates the modern scientific challenges of contemporary Islamic World."
Gov't Doc #: 26692
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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