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|Exploring gaps in the investigation process of countering financing of terrorism in Pakistan
Peace and Conflict Studies
|University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
|Plurality and diversity are the linchpin of democracy and a hedge against totalitarianism. In the public sphere of a democratic polity, plurality and diversity ensure that every voice or opinion gets an equal value. Therefore, this dissertation argues that the absence of Left perspective from the political discourse in Pakistan over the years has run against the spirit of plurality, diversity and heterogeneity. This absence, among others, is one of the key factors behind violence, extremism and radicalism that eats into the vitals of the country. The disintegration of the Soviet Union was a rupture, which disillusioned many Leftists and progressives in Pakistan and everywhere. This research investigates the impact of disintegration of the Soviet Union on the Left politics in Pakistan and the current status of Left politics in the country. It also assesses the link between the socio political and economic problems of Pakistan with the absence of Left perspective from the political scene. Data for the research was collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, Left political activists and academicians. The findings indicate that the disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991 negatively impacted the Left politics in Pakistan. The already weak Left political parties suffered their own disintegration and the Left leadership momentarily went into a disarray. In key economic and political decisions, the voice of the subaltern went unheard, which has serious consequences for the well-being of the common people. The large-scale privatisation and the so-called structural adjustments at the dictates of neoliberal organisations such as the World Bank and the IMF have further increased the woes of the common people. At the same time, sectarianism, militarism, and radicalisation have added further schism in the society because of the absence of a socio-political movement that speaks for the have-nots irrespective of their ethnicity and religious creed. However, a number of activists committed to the cause of Marxism continued their struggle during the hard and difficult times of 1990s. Since the last decade, the Left politics in Pakistan is re-emerging on the political scene and there are serious efforts to merge the various Left parties into a single broader party. Antonio Gramsci’s ‘Hegemony’ was used to interpret the data and draw theoretical inferences. Gramsci’s theory posits that ideas favouring the interests of the dominant class are accepted as the norm by the subaltern through a process of hegemony. This study recommends that merger of the Left political parties, bringing young cadres to key positions within the party, and launching a national media that speak for common people can help promote the Left political ideas in Pakistan.
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|PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.
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|Ayaz Khan 2021 conflict studies uop peshwar.pdf
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