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Title: Comparative Study of Perceptions of Stakeholders Regarding Quality of Education at Secondary School in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Authors: Nadeem, Muhammad
Keywords: Social Sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Gomal University, D.I.Khan.
Abstract: The researcher investigated and conducted a descriptive study to sort out as well as compare the insights of stakeholders to check the excellence of education at the secondary school level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The key area focus of the study was to know the views of stakeholders toward quality of education in terms of physical facilities, curriculum, teaching strategies, evaluation and assessment, communication skills, learning environment, co-curricular activities, continuous professional development, and financial measures, and scholarship. The study was delimited to Zone IV of KP which was selected by applying a simple random sampling technique similarly; the study was further delimited to stakeholders (principals, teachers, and students) of the secondary school of Zone IV of KP. The researcher has adopted a descriptive research design comprising quantitative and qualitative research parts. Data of the quantitative part was collected through a questionnaire and data of the qualitative part was collected through interviews. The questionnaire consists of demographic variables gender, division, and status of respondents and research variables physical resources, curriculum, teaching strategies, evaluation & assessment, communication skills, learning environment, CPD, co curricular activities, financial measures, and scholarships. The data relating to the role of community in the promotion of quality education at the secondary level was gathered through semi-structured interviews covering the qualitative nature of the study. The principals were allowed to give their perceptions about the contribution of the community i.e. members of PTC in the promotion of quality education. The total population of the quantitative study subject-wise principals, teachers, and students are 544, 7885 and134740. The population is further divided keeping in view it demographic nature gender and division. The population of the qualitative part which constitutes only principals of secondary schools of zone 4 constitutes only principals of secondary schools as data was collected only from principals about the role of community members i.e. members of PTC. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has consisted of 5 zones. Zone 4 of Khyber 147 Pakhtunkhwa was selected through a simple random sampling technique as the sample population of the study, zone 4 comprising of seven districts i.e. D.I.Khan, Tank, Bannu, Lakki, Marwat, Kohat, Karak and Hangu. In the present research study, the researcher selected stratified and simple random sampling techniques for the selection of samples. Here, the sample was acquired from the southern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which is governmentally composed of seven districts including Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Bannu, Karak, Kohat, and Hangu. The study is of quantitative and qualitative nature, the quantitative study covers respondents principals, teachers, and students whereas the qualitative study covers only the variable of community link and the responses of principals were taken regarding the contribution of community people in development and elected members of PTC provide facilities in enhancing the quality of secondary level of education. Here sample constituted of 272 principals, 500 teachers and 500 students which was taken by following L.R Gay sample procedure rule. First, the respondents were divided into strata gender divisions wise then randomly the respondents were selected by adopting a simple random technique. The qualitative sampling procedure covering the research variable ―Community Link‖ was a total of 105 principals taking 15 respondents (principals) from each district to take their views about the contribution of the community in enhancement of quality at the secondary level. The researcher in the current study used questionnaire and interviews for data collection, the researcher went personally to ensure delivery of the questionnaires and save time in LakkiMarwat, and Dera Ismail Khan and Tank districts, while in Bannu, Karak, Kohat, and Hangu districts through his colleague‘s/Ph.D fellows distributed the questionnaires in the sampled schools and collected the data. During the construction of the instrument researcher considered all the mentioned important points conveyed by experts under the guidance of experts, two research tools i.e. questionnaire and interview were developed by the researcher to understand the views of heads, teachers, and learners regarding the quality of education in secondary schools of KP”. Simple, clear, and brief directions were communicated in the questionnaire. The researcher constructed one questionnaire for heads and teachers and the other for learners. The researcher also managed a sitting with heads to find out the opinion about the involvement of community members. Data were evaluated by using Likert type rating scale with SA, A, UD. DA & SDA. The researcher made a self-made questionnaire to get the opinions from the stakeholders. After comprehensive reviews about related studies, the researcher developed a concise and complete fresh research instrument. Items developed by the 148 investigator in the questionnaire were related to getting accurate information from school heads, teachers, and students about quality indicators. Finally, and successively, seventy-five (75) questions were developed as under the captions of nine variables regarding quality education i.e. physical resources, curriculum, teaching strategies, evaluation & assessment, communication skills, learning environment, continuous professional development, co-curricular activities, and financial measures and scholarships. The researcher in the pilot study personally administered and distributed 80 questionnaires to the stakeholder in the local area. These respondents were not included in the sample. The feasible problems were incorporated after the pilot study. The questions not comprehending the mental level of respondents were removed. The following table indicates the response rate of the pilot study of questionnaires received from the heads, teachers, and students. In the present study, the researcher very carefully constructed 100 items regarding the quality of education. The document designed by the researcher was then sent to twenty (20) educational experts along with two extra pages attached hereby with the tool for the process of content validation. The researcher requested all the experts to give their valuable suggestions & guidance under the light of their expert opinions. The items mentioned in the questionnaire were improved and polished under the umbrella of the experts‘ panel. Finally, summing up all the opinions received from the panel; the researcher partially modified some items. 34 items were dropped from the questionnaire as the experts were of the view that these are not relevant items related to the current study. Thus, the questionnaire was mainly comprised of 77 items under the guidance of experts. The interview was properly developed in light of the role of the community in the promotion of quality education. The first 20 items were developed in light of principals/District Education Officers related to the role of community/members of PTC then during the process of validation, a final 12 items semi-structured interview was developed and adopted for the qualitative part of the study. The procedure to collect the data is a very difficult job for the researcher while conducting the research study. Data is collected from two sources primary source and secondary source. Primary source the information which we receive or get from the respondent at the very first stage is called primary data on the other hand the information collected from various articles, reading dissertations of scholars visiting multiple websites, joining digital libraries, and so on falls under the umbrella of secondary data. In the present study, the researcher collected the data by personally visiting the D.I. 149 Khan division, Bannu division & Kohat division from the selected portion sample taken from population moreover the researcher gathered all the related secondary data by reading the works of experts to tale pertinent literature on quality education. The data was of quantitative and qualitative nature collected from the respondents. The quantitative data were analyzed by using SPSS, first descriptive data were set in form of mean and standard deviation then inferential statistics t-test and ANOVA were applied for finding out the mean difference between two variables, and ANOVA was applied by finding out the mean difference between more than two variables. POSTHOC (Tukey) range test was used for knowing the significant difference from each other. Qualitative data was collected and its gist was written in a narrative form. It was concluded that all the stakeholders (principals, teachers, and students) are satisfied with physical resources provided by the government to secondary schools, the current curriculum developed by experts is covering all the three domains i.e. cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, learning environment of their schools and co-curricular activities are properly arranged by school authorities well on time. While in case of other variables i.e. teaching strategies, evaluation and assessment, and communication skills, principals and students are showed low satisfaction levels toward teaching strategies used by teachers during the teaching and learning process, evaluation and assessment system of their educational exam boards, and communication skills used by teachers during teaching-learning process and other educational matters linked with efficiency of schools, while teachers are showed their more interest regarding discussed variables.
Gov't Doc #: 24839
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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