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Title: Distribution of Weeds in Wheat Crop with Reference to Farming System Analysis of Malakand District
Authors: Iqbal, Muhammad
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: Weeds are important plants growing in winter wheat crop during the ordinary winter environmental condition. It also occure in other important crop plants of agricultural importance. Its ecology and phytosociological classification was evaluated least as it is considered the nearest enemy for crops and having a deteriorating influence on economic crops. Therefore, the flora of such plants was analyzed quantitatively in spring season during wheat crop cultivation of Malakand, Pakistan inorder to identify weed species composition, abundance, distribution pattern, communities’ formation and its associated indicators under the impact of various environmental variable and farming practices through multivariate statistical techniques. Quadrat method as Quantitative ecological techniques was used for quantification of weeds flora. A total of 1200 quadrates (Ten in each field) of 1×1 m2 in size were selected randomly in 120 winter wheat field. Phytosociological attributes including Density, Reltive density, Frequency, Relative frequency and Importance Values Index of every weed species were measured in each quadrate. Soil samples at 20cm depth were collected from each field to quantify its physicochemical properties. Questionnaire method was adopted for data collection regarding various types of farming practices. MS Excel sheet was used for all the data for analyses in PCORD and CANOCO softwares. From the project area 132 weed species were recorded belonging to 110 Genera and 42 different plant families. Cluster and Two-Way Cluster Analysis of PCORD V5 resulted into 5 major weed communities through Sorenson Distance Measurement. These communities were; (i) Emex-Vicia-Lathyrus weeds Community, (ii) Alyssum-Cannabis Lithospermum weeds Community, (iii) Oxalis-Lathyrus-Chenopodium weeds Community, (iv) Euphorbia-Cerastium-Capsella-bursa weeds Community and (v) Alopecurus-Mazus-Persicaria weeds Community. CANOCO V 4.5 Software was 2 used to know the impact of various measured environmental variables, edaphic factors and farming practices on abundance, composition and distribution pattern of weed species through Canonical Correspondence Analyses (CCA). Among all the environmental variables soil pH, temperature, high phosphorous concentration, higher electrical conductivity, soil structure, CaCO3, herbicides used, preceding crops, quantity of manure used in specific time, source of irrigation and sowing time were the main determinant factors responsible for the formation of weed communities and its associated indicators. In conclusion the results show that edaphic factor and farming practices have significant effects on weed species distribution, communities’ formation and its indicator species. The results of the techniques used in the research project could be used for the management purposes of weeds under the micro climatic, edaphic and local farming practice regimes. It is also confirmed that some weeds are unwanted plants but some of them economically and ecologically very important. Such weed species need proper conservation management in the project area in future.
Gov't Doc #: 22051
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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