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Title: Archaeology of Globalization: A Discourse of Neo- Imperialism
Authors: Nawaz, Rafida
Keywords: Social Sciences
Political sciences
International relations
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: Bahauddin Zakriya University Multan
Abstract: Imperialism extended the sovereignty of the European Nations and Europe originated “modernity” beyond European space. Trinity of Resources, State and Markets operated vertically to construct the identities and subjectivities of the people. The study will employ Foucault concepts of governmentality, Power/knowledge, and discourse to understand the Archaeology (History of Present) of Globalization. Foucault believes that objective of Archaeology is to study change and transformation (Foucault, [1969], 2004). Foucault treats ‘concepts’ as strategies 2 of domination so his work drew attention of thinkers like Michel Watts working on repression of Post colonial state “development governmentality” (Watts M. , 2003), treating the state in third world as apparatus and instrument of control used indirectly by the ex (colonial)masters. One expression of “European Modernity” is its mode of political organization i.e. State and State system, which originated in Europe but that is now global in nature. Development of State or State system with its instrumental reason and processes that rationalize society, economy and polity was a unique feature of Europe. Twin doctrines of state and capitalism served as structures of rationality for modern world has their origin in Renaissance European state where they first devised their mechanisms of subjugation. Foucault aims to do “without a theory of the state” and one claim of Globalization narrative is that Globalization has made state ineffective. Foucault objects two fundamentals of state theory.  2 State is a universal entity Strategy is defined by Deryfus and Rabinow (1983) as rationality involved in arriving at a solution or addressing a question or to attain the intended objective. 13 State is an independent, autonomous source of power. For him the “state is neither a universal nor in itself an autonomous source of power” (Foucault, 2008, p. 77). Foucault treats “Emergence of state as a fundamental political issue” is an episode in “general history” of Governmentality. (Foucault, 2004, p. 247) Foucault believes that state is nothing else but mobile effects of multiple governmentalities. Apex of state making for postcolonial world is European model of nation state. Nation state model of Europe is capitalist where state becomes a tool in construction of Bourgeoisie hegemony and capitalist accumulation. In Postcolonial world state serves the dual purpose of capitalist accumulation for the indigenous bourgeoisie and accumulation at world scale. Present singular world has its origins in age of European imperialism; however despite claims of homogeneity today we encounter with the problem of time/ space in this singular Globalised world. People living in different spaces are living in different times (traditional, modern and postmodern world is present within the global space The prime preposition for this study is that hybrid, heterogeneous, local compositions in “global homogenous singular formation” termed as “Globalization” and people living in different time zones of modernity across different spaces in age of globalization are products of different “governmentalities” (conduct patterns) employed by states to facilitate the requirements of global capitalism. We have further deconstructed this main preposition in components.  The governmentality employed in Core states is essentially different from Peripheral states. OR The different patterns of conduct and rules of governance are employed in Eurocenter (West) and non Western others. 14 The will to knowledge is not separate from will to power. Western knowledge produced and sustained the “structures of rationality” and different versions of same political organization i.e. state to sustain hegemonic orders.  State and Capital are intrinsic to each other and state is still meaningful in this era of triumph of capitalism.  State is not only the structures of dominance sustaining global and local hegemonies but also provide a conception of “just rule” for resistance movements fighting against global and local forms of subjugations. Study is divided in four main chapters 1. Archaeology of Contemporary Political Reason 2. Hegemonic Governmentality: A Nexus of Power/knowledge and Subjectivities 3. Chapter 3: Emergence of New World Order and Post Colonial Structures of Rationality: Case of Nigeria and Pakistan 4. Myth of Globalization The first chapter will provide an archaeological approach to World-System. Colonial Governmentality adopted in British India and Colonial Nigeria will be discussed as “Other” to European Governmentality in second Chapter. In third Chapter governmentality employed by Post colonial state of Pakistan and Nigeria that gave rise to ethno national movements of Biafra and Bangladesh will be discussed. Fourth Chapter will discuss along with a new concept of governmentality employed in Europe as well as impacts of anarcho- capitalism of neoliberal Washington Consensus on Postcolonial states. Religious Revivalism and Ethnicity are two responses to this development. Our finding is that despite its failure, state is still relevant in the age of Globalization and we suggest a state remedy for state failure.
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