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Title: Crop Yield and Silage Quality of Different Fodders under Deficit Irrigation System of Southern Punjab
Authors: Aslam, Muhammad
Keywords: Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Islamia University, Bahawalpur.
Abstract: Climate change is one of the multidimensional challenges that results in serious risk to the masses who are only dependent on agriculture as well as livestock in countries like Pakistan. The harmful effects of water shortage as a result of changing condition of climate result in the lower production of food and fodder crops. In order to investigate how water stress can effect fodder yield and its quality, experiments were conducted during spring 2016 and 2017. Initially, available genotypes for maize (Zea mays L.): Neelam, Rafhan Pak-Afgoi, Pioneer, Syngenta, and maize local, for cowpea (Vigna unguniculata L.): White, Black, and Rawan, for guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.): K-97 and Desi were screened for their performance under PEG-8000 with concentration of 5% and 10% respectively along with control to induce osmotic stress conditions under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Effect of osmotic stress on germination potential , promptness index, times to 50% emergence, emergence index, mean emergence time, shoot length, root length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigor index, and germination energy were investigated. On the basis of above analysis Neelam, Rawan, and Desi genotypes of maize, cowpea and guar respectively were found most drought resistant. These genotypes were further tested in the field through Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement by growing crops either as sole crops (C₀= sole maize, C1= sole cowpea, and C2=sole guar) or intercropped (C3=maize intercropped with cowpea and C4=maize intercropped with guar) in the main plots. These main plot crops were further exposed to water stress by skipping irrigation at 15 (I1), 30 (I2), 45 (I3), and 60 (I4) days after sowing along with normal irrigation (I0). Data regarding various agronomic parameters were recorded and statistically analyzed. Intercropping combinations resulted in maximum green forage and dry matter yield as well as land equivalent ratio. Maize showed dominance over competing crops. The crops were harvested at heading stage and chopped fresh biomass was used to make silage for proximate analysis. Drought stress significantly affect nutritional quality (ash, crude protein, dry matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and pH) of fodder and silage. It was concluded from all above results that C₄ is best suited for getting optimum yield and forage quality as fresh and preserved forages under growing conditions represented by high temperatures and limited availability of irrigation water.
URI: 22455
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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