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Title: Studies on the Occurrence and Bioavailability of Heavey Metals in Phosphate Ores, Fertilizers, and Soils of Pakistan
Authors: Ahmad, Imtiaz
Keywords: Physical Sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
Abstract: Toxic heavy metals are usually found in crops and vegetables due to fertilizers used for their better production. Phosphatic ores are used as a major source of phosphate fertilizers production. These fertilizers are eventually used as nutrient sources for better growth and development of crops and vegetables. Toxic heavy metals in phosphate ores are transferred to the fertilizer and ultimately from fertilizer to the food web and affect the human health. These metals may cause severe diseases such as cancer, liver failure, kidney failure and leukemia etc. In this thesis toxic metal concentrations in some phosphate ores, phosphate fertilizers, soil samples and selected vegetables have been determined. Phosphate ore and phosphate fertilizer samples were obtained from well-known fertilizer manufacturing companies. Soil samples were obtained from different locations of Pakistan. Heavy metal analysis was done with the help of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals present in elevated amounts in some phosphate ores and fertilizers collected from local companies while some phosphate ore and fertilizer samples had heavy metal concentration within permissible limits. Some of the metals have greater tendency to move into the different parts of vegetables, but again it mainly depends upon the amount of metal already present in the entire chain i.e ore, fertilizer and soil. Levels of heavy metals in soil were in the order of Zn>Cu>Ni>Sb>Co>Mn>As> Cd>Pb>Cr before the cultivation of vegetables. Overall results of metal concentration in different parts of vegetables showed that a very important mechanism existed in the plants and vegetables that filtered the toxic metals and prevented them from entering the edible parts of vegetables. Correlation coefficient analysis had shown that there was the metal mobility from phosphate ores to the respective fertilizer depending upon the amount and nature of metal present. The onset of complex diseases can be minimized by using metal free Phosphate ores and phosphate fertilizers in the fields of crops and vegetables
Gov't Doc #: 24229
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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