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Title: حدیثِ نبوی اور سلطان باہو کی صوفی فکر: تجزیاتی و تطبیقی مطالعہ
Authors: Amin, Muhammad
Keywords: Religious Studies
Islamic Studies
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
Abstract: In Islamic religion, the people who are close to the almighty ALLAH are Prophets, Prophet’s companions and Sufis. Sufis are one of the most influential personalities because of their work for Islam and preaching of their thoughts to the masses. There are a number of Sufis in Islam and Sultan Bahu is one of them. Sultan Bahu is very popular in public and spiritual circles in sub continent. He is counted in the great sacred saints and has also a high position in mystic poets. Sufis claim that Sufism is based on the Qur'an and Prophetical sayings. In this context, study of the archaeological aspects of Sultan Bahu is very important because Sultan Bahu has given a lot of references to the Ahadith in his writings while describing his sufi thoughts, so it should be studied if he has alluded to authentic of Ahadith in his books. There was a need to understand the work of Sultan Bahu in the light of Ahadith. Hence, the present research aims to analyze the validity of Ahadith recorded in Sultan Bahu’s (d. 1691)writings while sporting his Sufi ideas to reach a deeper understanding of his writings, to enable a common reader to see the excellence of the works of Sultan Bahu. The work of Sultan Bahu consists on thirty three books. Sultan Bahu’s books are considered important works in the field of Ethics and Sufism across the Subcontinent. Reader cannot benefit himself from his writings unless he has good knowledge of correctness and sources of these quotes from Hadith. However, many have studied his writings with keenness of appreciation without concentrating on the authenticity of hadith used in his writings and believing that they are ‘sahi’ because a sufi cant commit any misappropriation. The main problem of this research is to find out the determination of the thought of Sultan Bahu and the authenticity of the Ahadith in them. This can be explored through the following questions of the research. Sultan Bahu, whose authentic ideas, the Ahadith refer to, are as regards the Hadiths' credentials? Do Sultan Bahu’s mysticism have any conformity with the Ahadith? If his mystic beliefs are not according to the sayings of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ; then what is their status? Is it permissible to be considered accurate and acceptable under the rule of rawayat-bil-mana. This topic is delimited to the thirty three books of Sultan Bahu which are available in libraries or in personal collections of a few persons. Thirty one of these books are composed in Persian having a distinguished prose style. These books are studies in Ahadith which are quoted to sporting Sultan Bahu’s sufi thoughts in his writings. One of these thirty three books is an anthology of vi Ghazals while another is a collection of Sultan Bahu’s Punjabi poetry. All of these books have been taken as sources of Sultan Bahu’s sufi thoughts. Chapter No.1 of this dissertation provides detail of all these books. Sultan Bahu a significant position in Sufi literature, but it has also been criticized because of its alleged weak and fabricated Ahadith. In this context, this research is focused on the study of weak and fabricated Prophetic traditions recorded in Sultan Bahu's books. The summary is that till today the research on the books of Sultan Bahu and his poems and ideas were done, but no significant attention to the important research which was Ahadith mentioned in the books of Sultan Bahu. The Ahadith (which supported his thoughts) is an effort to examine the practical review, so it became very easy to understand the status of his thinking, and the need of his work. During research, procedure research has been analyzed and enforced. Basically the Ahadith in Sultan Bahu's books have been designated. All the Ahadith were analyzed, among them there were verbal errors in the narrated Ahadith, it is corrected, then these Ahadith were divided into five kinds: authentic (Sahih), weak (Daif), fabricated (Maudu), virtues of ancestors (Aqwale Salf) and virtues of Sultan Bahu (Aqwal e Bahu). The virtues of ancestors and wisdom of Sultan Bahu were described as 'Ahadith' in writings of Sultan Bahu. Therefore, the Ahadith that are weak and fabricated, were determined and then analyzed all of them one by one separately in the light of the Quranic verses and authentic Prophetic traditions. The chapter of Hadith, which is the key and basic chapter of the thesis, is research analysis and implementation. After a critical examination of all these reports, it has been observed that there are 500 total Arabic texts which are generally considered Ahadith. There are 114 out of 500 reports mentioned in the books of Sultan Bahu are Sahih, 56 are Daif, 71 are Maudu, 66 are sayings of ancestors and 163 are the sayings of Sultan Bahu himself considered Ahadith in these books. In this context there are 40 out of 500 traditions which are called "Arbaeen e Sahihah" reported in “Muhkamul Fuqara” by Sultan Bahu. Consequently, there are only 13 out of 40 reports that can be declared weak. After studying the Sufi thoughts of Sultan Bahu, we find that he was not follower of only Sufi school of thought; in fact he was a “Mujtahid” Sufi and had his own conclusions and ideologies. This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter consists of the detail of Sultan Bahu’s personality including his ancestors, his childhood education vii and patriotism, his children, his knowledge and his famous scholars, his followers, students and his writings. The second chapter is divided into two parts. The first part of this chapter is contained on the main sources of his sufi thoughts which are Qura’an, Ahadith and sayings of ancestors and his own. In the second part of this chapter Sultan Bahu's thinking of faith, moral and practical was reviewed in the views of Sultan Bahu. In the chapter NO.3, 4, 5 and 6 of this study contained an analytical study analysis of the Ahadith concerning the support of Sultan Bahu's Sufi thinking narrated in his books. In this case, the authentic traditions, weak, fabricated, and the sayings of ancestors and sayings of Sultan Bahu himself that were considered Ahadith in his writings. Those who had literally identified mistakes were identified. These traditions are analyzed and then separated them into Sahi/authentic, Daief/ weak, Maudu/ fabricated, Aqwal e aslaf/virtues of ancestors and Aqwal e Sultan Bahu/the wisdom of Sultan Bahu. The 3hird chapter of this research specially is about Riwayat e Sahiha reported in the books of Sultan Bahu. There are two kinds of these Riwayat e Sahiha, first: the Riwayat e Sahiha that are reported in Sihah Sittah and second the Riwayat e Sahiha that are not reported in Sihah Sittah but Muhaddeseen declared them authentic. So, there are 116 out of 500 reports are Sahi Ahadith discussed in this chapter. In the 4th chapter there is a discussion of weak traditions and “Arbaein e Sultan Bahu” narrated in the books of Sultan Bahu. These traditions are 56 weak and 40 Arbain e Sultan Bahu in number. The 5th chapter of this study is about Maudu/ fabricated traditions and about Aqwal e Salf / virtues of ancestors which considered Ahadith / Prophetic traditions in the writings of Sultan Bahu. There are 71 maudu traditions and 66 Aqwal e salf in number. The 6th chapter is the last chapter of this study and this is about the wisdom of Sultan Bahu/ Aqwal e nafsia. These sayings are 163 in number that are discussed in this last chapter.
Gov't Doc #: 23891
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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