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Title: Physicochemical Characterization and Encapsulation of Pomegranate Seed Oil
Authors: Kori, Abdul Hameed
Keywords: Physical Sciences
Analytical Chemistry
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
Abstract: Encapsulation is a method to entrap oil or core material into a shell (wall material) to protect it. Encapsulation protects sensitive food ingredients against oxygen, moisture, heat, and pH. Fats, oils, and lipid-based foods deteriorate on long term storage and on heating which also results in decreased nutritional value and sensory quality. The present study was conducted to check the quality of oil present in pomegranate waste seed and its possible utilization for encapsulation. The development of efficient emulsion is essential and a prerequisite for the encapsulation process. In this study, the stability of pomegranate oil-in-water emulsions (0.5 to 7% v/v) was investigated using various emulsifiers in terms of droplet size and instability index during 16 days of storage. The Mastersizer and Lumisizer were used to measure the droplet size and instability index. It was observed that the minimum droplet size was achieved by using 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) (5.37 µm) and maximum with 1.0/2.5% whey protein (WP)-maltodextrin (MD) (24.26 µm). The Lumisizer results during storage revealed higher emulsion stability of CMC due to smaller droplet size and high thickness as compared to other emulsions studied. Encapsulating agents such as MD, WP, gum Arabic (GA), skimmed milk powder (SMP), guar gum (GG), and xanthan gum (XG) were used for encapsulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) in different combination to check their influence on encapsulation efficiency, physical parameters, oxidative stability and efficiency of spray drying (SD) and freeze drying (FD) methods. Different parameters were examined such as core to wall materials ratio, feed solids concentration, inlet, and outlet air temperature, drying airflow rate in SD and FD methods.The effective parameters were observed to be 1:4 core to coating ratio, 35% w/w feed solids concentration, 18,000 RPM, time 6 min, 150oC inlet, and 67oC outlet air temperature, feeding rate 5.2 g/m, pump rate 40%, and airflow rate 40-42 m3 /m for SD process, while for FD process the temperature and pressure kept constant at -84oC and 0.01mbar, respectively. VI Physical characters of FD particles were analyzed such as emulsion droplet size (8–9 µm), product yield (96–99%), microencapsulation efficiency (70–83%), moisture (2.9–4.1%), bulk density (0.206–0.235 g/mL), tapped density (0.258-0.321), hygroscopicity (13.75–15.30%), wettability (39-46 s), solubility (85–93%), and particle size (26–31 µm). On the other hand, physical characters of SD particles were obtained such as emulsion droplet size (7–9 µm), product yield (65–77%), microencapsulation efficiency (75–90%), moisture (3–4.3%), bulk density (0.219– 0.277 g/mL), tapped density (0.274-0.296g/mL), hygroscopicity (15.67–17.83%), wettability (31-40 s), solubility (84–91%), and particle size (15–19 µm). SD process was found better in terms of encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability as compared to the FD process. Oxidative stability was also checked and found that high encapsulation efficiency microcapsules had better stability than low encapsulation efficiency microcapsules. All formulations promoted oxidative protection of the oil when compared with the bulk PSO at 60oC for 15 days. Peroxide, p‐Anisidine, and Totox values of the encapsulated PSO particles of different wall materials were crossed after 15 days of both drying methods. The finding revealed that encapsulation with PSO was successful in improving the oxidative stability of the oil. However, WP alone and a combination of MD-GA and MD-SMP were considered the best wall materials, allowing protection of PSO, and could be used for future applications in the food industry.
Gov't Doc #: 23361
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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