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|Morpho-Anatomical and Eco-Physiological Studies of Genus Carex from the Punjab
|Biological & Medical Sciences
|University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
|The Cyperaceae is a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known assedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes. Members of family Cyperaceae occupy a variety of habitat types, ranging from extreme aridity, high altitude, extreme salinity, moist areas, swamps and marshes to steep slopes. This is a large family, with some 5,500 known species in about 90 genera, the largest of which is Carex genus of "true sedges with over 2,000 species. Studies were carried out on morphology, ecology, physiology and anatomy of genus Carex of family Cyperaceae to identify. Almost 40 species were collected from the all over the Pakistan, one from changa manga, and other from blue pine foresets of muree hills. Three species, C. ecostata, C. raphidocarpa and C. lindleyana, were the first record in Pakistan, however, these species were reported in Hooke Flora of British India. Some species like C. nivalis, from Patriata, C. brunnea from Patriata, C. decaulescens from Bansra gali, C. pamirica from Ayubia and C. cruciata from Bansra Gali were top species which showed prominent response to different eco-physiological and morpho-anatomical characters. Soil pH was higher in the plain regions than that in the hilly areas. pH of rhizospheric soil of Bhurban (lower altitudes) showed the minimum value, particularly where species like C. cruenta and C. atrofusca were growing. Soil ECe value was also decrease in high hilly area. Carex species colonizing the highest altitudes from Ayubia showed better growth in terms of shoot and root length. Winter temperature is relatively low at this site due the high amount snow, and this will promote growth in Carex species like C. pamirica and C. plectobasis. Anatomical characteristics like better development of internal tissues, higher proportion of storage parenchyma, intensive sclerefication and well-developed vascular tissues in C. nivalis and C. brunnea. Chlorophyll pigments, specifically chlorophyll a, was maximum mostly at site where plant development and growth were better. Environmental conditions harshly affect K+ while shoot Ca2+, showed maximum value at low to moderate altitude region species C. nivalis and C. brunnea. Different anatomical and physiological characters were correlated with different morphological parameters. Root epidermal cell area and stem cortical cell area negatively correlated with the shoot length while metaxylem and vascular bundle area showed positive correlation with the root and inflorescence length. Different physiological parameters such as chlorophyll contents, glycine betaine, transpiration rate and sub-stomatal CO2 conductance showed negative correlation with root and shoot length except proline content which was positively correlated.
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