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dc.contributor.authorHussain, Sabir-
dc.description.abstractIn Pakistan, agriculture is the largest sector of the economy in terms of job participation, and the livelihoods of most of the population are directly or indirectly dependent on it. However, over the last few decades, its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has gradually declined to 19.3 per cent, while there is a great deal of opportunity in the sector to increase its share of GDP through information and communication technologies (ICT). This sector supplies raw materials to a variety of industries, and its development not only leads to poverty alleviation, but can also boost the socio-economic structure of small-scale farmers. However, the challenges of climate change, water shortages and crop diseases have held agricultural production far below its potential. Farmers mostly rely on conventional farming approaches to planting their crops and they are unable to respond to the effects of climate change. Another problem is that farmers do not have direct and easy access to the market for the selling of vegetables or grain and are primarily dependent on the existing food supply chain system, where intermediaries frequently reap their benefits and farmers cannot get fair market prices. ICT can play a dynamic role to tackle these problems by providing smart agriculture system to increase agriculture production and connect farmers with the market by transforming traditional food supply chain system. Therefore this research presents a smart agriculture system using ICT technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain through which some of the problems can address and farmers can grow high crops by monitoring their farm environment while the stakeholders involved in food supply chain can interact with each other without assistance of trusted third parties. This system uses various IoT nodes capable of detecting soil parameters and sending information to farmers in order to make timely decisions to improve their crops. The blockchain technology connect the farmers to the market and provide fair path for business transactions. To provide strong theoretical base this research applied Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to explore the relationship between ICT and agriculture in enhancing the skill of small-scale farmers. On this basis, In the first phase research carried out a quantitative analysis by taking sample of 333 participants to determine the factors affecting the agricultural production and to understand the specific information needs of small-scale farmers and the conditions for the best fit of ICT. The study findings indicate that the certain factors such demographic attributes like age, education and gender and type of farming practices and social learning of the participants have an impact on agricultural production. Whereas use of ICT has a positive mediating and the ease of use have a positive moderating effect on agricultural production. In second phase smart model for agriculture was developed by deploying IoT nodes in the cluster farm to collect field information and transfer them to the server wirelessly. Energy is always the heart of any network therefore to reduce energy consumption and prolong network life this research proposes a new clustering hierarchical routing protocol (IoT-based Agriculture) based on LEACH protocol. The IoT-based Agriculture scheme mechanize the formation of clusters, cluster head selection and the data transmission process, and further simulated with LEACH protocol. The simulation results show that IoT-based Agriculture scheme network stability is 23% higher as compared to LEACH as LEACH first node dies at 168 rounds while IoT-based Agriculture first node dies after 463 rounds. Similarly, IoT based agriculture scheme energy consumption is 68% lower than that of LEACH. IoT based Agriculture scheme also boosts network life to a greater number of rounds and demonstrates an increase of 112%.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherIqra National University, Peshawar.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering & Technologyen_US
dc.subjectEngineering Managementen_US
dc.titleUse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Agriculture to Uplift Small-Scale Farmers in Rural Pakistanen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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