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Title: Quantification of Climate Variability on Sunflower Under Semiarid Conditions of Punjab for Optimizing Nitrogen and Sowing Dates Using DSSAT and APSIM
Authors: Awais, Muhammad
Keywords: Earth Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Abstract: Climate plays an important role in the agriculture production system as an abiotic factor. The current vulnerability in climate fastly increase duration, frequency, and intensity of temperature. In the agriculture sector, the crop yield varies annually due to the dependence of the agriculture system to climate. The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere plays an important role in global warming which affect the crop production and global food supply. The Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) and Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) are the software that comprises a package of crop simulation models for over 28 different crop types. Sunflower productivity is strongly affected by climate variability. Planting date and nitrogen play a key role to achieve achene yield on a sustainable basis. Therefore, to assess the impact of sowing dates and nitrogen on sunflower phenology and yield attributes, the field experiments were conducted in spring 2018 and 2019 in Faisalabad and Vehari by using split-plot arrangement. The treatments included four sowing dates (1stJanuary, 16thJanuary, 31stJanuary and 15th February) and three nitrogen levels (160, 200 and 240 kg ha-1 ). The results showed that the longer phenological period, yield and yield components were observed in 2019 compared to 2018. The performance of sunflower productivity was better in Faisalabad compared to Vehari. The maximum days to anthesis (70 and 69), maturity (110 and 107) were observed at 1st Jan in Faisalabad and Vehari, respectively. The crop planted on 1st January with 240 kg N ha-1 accumulated less thermal time over late sown 15th February at both locations. The maximum total dry matter (TDM), crop growth rate (CGR), Leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), plant height, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, number of achenes head-1 , achene yield were recorded at 2nd sowing date (16 January) in Faisalabad and at 1st sowing date (1 January) in Vehari with nitrogen @ 240 kg ha-1 . The interactive effect of sowing dates and nitrogen was highly significant on achene yield, Fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE). The CROPGRO model was used for sunflower under the umbrella of (DSSAT) and the APSIM-Sunflower model was used under the (APSIM) to simulate the phenology, growth and yield of sunflower by calibrating these model with observed experimental data. After calibration and evaluation with the current baseline from 1984 to 2019 weather data, these models were observed to fit in our local climatic conditions (Faisalabad and Vehari) to assess impact of climate change. The global circular models (GCMs) were used to predict reference weather data for mid century (2039-2069) for Faisalabad and Vehari to grow sunflower. The data of 5 GCMs were used as climate change scenarios for mid-century to assess the impact of climate change in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productivity. The results were concluded that the increased atmospheric temperature significantly decreased the achene yield and biological yield in sunflower during mid-century.
Gov't Doc #: 22998
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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