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dc.contributor.authorKhurram, Asif Masaud-
dc.description.abstractBiosorption is upcoming removal technique which involves the use of nonconventional agricultural materials in order to detoxify metal contaminated water systems. Many dead and inactive biomass materials obtained as a result of agricultural practices have been investigated in this regard. The present study has focused on the biomass generated from Trifolium resupinatum for the uptake of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The modification of Trifolium resupinatum was carried out using various modifying agents including methyl acrylate, xanthate, ethylene glycol as well as carbonization of the biomass. Divalent cadmium, nickel and lead were selected for biosorption studies due to their toxicity as well as non-biodegradability towards environment. Modification by carbonization of biomass gave better results as compared with other modifications. Trifolium resupinatum in its native form as well as modified state was characterized chemically and physically. The characterization was performed by using many analytical techniques including FTIR, SEM, EDS.CHNS, bulk density, moisture content and pHpzc analyses. Strong evidence indicated by the presence of various functional groups like hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl and amide groups considered responsible for binding of metal cations onto biomass surface. The increase in biosorption capacity was observed in carbonized modification as compared with the other modifications performed for this purpose. The utilization of simple and carbonized biomass was explored for detoxification of selected metal cations in batch mode of biosorption. The effects of various process parameters were studied including dosage of biosorbent, time of contact, pH of the medium and initial metal ions concentration. Batch biosorption process was applied not only to single metal ions system but also on the binary as well as tertiary metal ions systems. Biosorption studies of binary solutions included all the three metal ion solutions in equal proportions in order to study behavior of each metal ion in the presence of other one. The data obtained by experimental results was evaluated by renowned equilibrium as well as kinetic models to have in-depth study of mechanism of biosorption process. The Langmuir model showed better fit as compared with other models and maximum biosorption capacity of raw as well as modified biosorbents was evaluated using this model. The maximum biosorption capacity by using modified biomass increased from 31.95 mg/g to 44.64 mg/g for cadmium, 21.36 mg/g to 33.57 mg/g for nickel and 10.38 mg/g to 26.38 mg/g for lead metal ions. The experimental results proved that batch mode of biosorption can be used as eco-friendly as well as economic route to detoxify metal ions from aqueous solutions. The carbonization as modification pathway, provides a good choice to detoxify aqueous systems from metal ions contamination.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of the Punjab , Lahoreen_US
dc.subjectPhysical Sciencesen_US
dc.titleBinding of Toxic Metals Ions using Biodegradable Modified Biomass from Trifolium Resupinatumen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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