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|Taxonomic Diversity and Molecular Phylogenetics of Genus Amanita Pers. and Russula Pers. from some selected areas of Pakistan
|Biological & Medical Sciences
|University of the Punjab , Lahore
|Macrofungi are an integral part of all forest ecosystems. Out of these, Amanita and Russula, both are important ecologically and economically. Species in these genera are widely distributed throughout the world. Intensive studies have been carried out on them especially in Europe and North America. However, there are a very few published studies from Asia. Current study resulted in the successful characterization of 25 Amanita species from Pakistan, using morpho-anatomical and molecular and phylogenetic tools. Out of these, 4 species i.e., Amanita pakistanica Tulloss, SH Iqbal and AN Khalid, A. cinnamomescens Tulloss, SH Iqbal, AN Khalid and Bhandary, A.flavipes S Imai and A.nana Singer have been already reported from Pakistan while 2 species i.e., A.manicata (Berk and Broome) Pegler and A.pallidorosea P Zhang and Zhu L Yang are new records for Pakistan. Rest of the 19 species, seem to be undescribed previously. Further, 2 species i.e., A.glarea S Jabeen, M Kiran and Saddiqullah and A.griseofusca J Khan and M Kiran have been published as additions to section Vaginatae and A. ahmadii Jabeen, I Ahmad, M Kiran, J Khan and Khalid has been added to section Validae during current research studies. Furthermore, current research work resulted in the successful identification of 37 Russula species belonging to 4 subgenera. Out of these, 19 species are members of Russula subgenus Russula. Seventeen species (R. aurantioflava Kiran and Khalid sp.nov., R. ayubii Kiran, Khalid and Adamcik sp.nov., R. brunneolucidata nom.prov., R. brunneopurpurea Jabeen and Khalid, R. brunneopurpuroides nom.prov., R. aff. brunneopurpurea, R. flavopurpurea nom.prov., R. flavorosea nom.prov., R. flavorubrea nom.prov., R. kumratica nom.prov., R. roseipioides nom.prov., R. rubreola nom.prov., R. rubropurpurea nom.prov., R. rubroviolacea nom.prov., R. sichuanensis GJ Li and HA Wen, R. subviolacea nom.prov., R. utrorensis nom.prov.) belong to crown clade while 2 species (R. aff. persicina and R. thindii K Das and SL Mill) are members of R. subgenus Russula core clade. Fourteen of them are proposed as new to science, 2 species have already been reported from Pakistan i.e., R. brunneopurpurea, R. sichuanensis while a species (R.thindii) represents new record for Pakistan. R. aurantioflava Kiran and Khalid sp. nov. has been submitted for publication (FUDI-D-19-00038). Ten Russula species are found to be members of R. subgenus Heterophyllidia, 5 each belonging to section Heterophyllae (R. aeruginea Lindblad ex Fr, R. cyanoxanthoides nom.prov., R. griseobrunnea nom.prov., R. purpureogrisea nom.prov., R. subatroglauca nom.prov.) and section Ingratae (R. ahmadii Jabeen, Razaq, Niazi, I Ahmad and Khalid, R. atrobrunnea nom.prov., R. subahmadii nom.prov., R. subfoetentula nom.prov., R. subpectinatoides nom.prov.). Eight of these members of subgenus Heterophyllidia seem to be new to science. Three species (Russula sp Pak1, R. sp Pak2 and R. sp Pak3) while 2 of them seem to be new and 5 species in subgenus Compactae (R. acrifolia Romagn, R. albobrunnea nom. prov., R. anthracina Romagn, R. sp. Pak 4 and R. subanthracina nom.prov.) with 3 species which are distinct from already known taxa. This study provided the first insight into the taxonomic diversity and molecular phylogenetics of genus Amanita and Russula from Pakistan. It indicated that the forests of Pakistan represent an untapped and rich source of mushroom biodiversity. Species diversity of Genus Amanita and Russula is possibly much higher than known now, in Pakistan. The results of this study can be used for taxonomy based comparisons. Molecular sequence data deposited in global repository will be helpful as a reference for future taxonomic and phylogenetic research work.
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