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dc.contributor.authorZreen, Zohra-
dc.description.abstractThis study was focused on the investigtion of phytochemical contents and medicinal values of Diospyros kaki and Diospyros malabarica, plant species of Ebenaceace family. In this study plant organs (root, leaves, bark, stem, ripe and unripe fruit) were sequentially extracted using different organic solvents (Petroleum ether, dichloro methane, ethyl acetae, ethanol, methanol and water) in increasing order of polarity from less polar to more polar solvents. After this, phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively (flavonoids, terpenoid, saponins and tannins) as well as quantitatively (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) using standard protocols. Similarly, biochemical analysis was determined such as enzymatic, non-enzymatic & hydrolytic enzymes along with some other bio-chemical assays to assess their anti-oxidant potential. Furthermore, biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory were investigated. In the end, this research work was followed up out using D. kaki and D. malabarica aqueous extracts of leaves, bark & unripe fruit extracts for green synthesis of ZnONPs and characterization of these biosynthesized ZnO NPs was then executed by different spectroscopic techniques like FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDS and UV-Visible spectroscopy. We found good extraction yield and phytochemicals (tannins, flavonoids, saponins & terpenoids) in all solvent extracts of D. kaki & D.malabarica but highest extraction yield and presence of phytochemicals were observed in more polar solvents than non-polar. In parallel, among studied plant parts of both plants, leaves and unripe fruit extracts of D. kaki and bark extract of D. malabrica showed greatest extraction yield and phytochemical contents. So plant parts having highest yield and phytochemical contents in methanol and ethanol were screened out for further quantitative analysis of TPC and TFC and evaluation of invitro biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial. It is it is noteworthy that methanol extract of Diospyros kaki leaves exhibited highest TPC and TFC along with significant biological activities (anti-inflammatory,anticancer and antibacterial againt E.coli) while antifungal, anti-diabetic and antibacterial against streptococcus activities were shown by ethanol unripe fruit extract. Among plant parts of D.malabarica, methanol bark extraxt demonstrated more TPC and TFC with evaluation of significant biological activities. Likewise in biochemical analysis, abunadance of antioxidants and biochemical parametrs was found in bark extract of D. malabrica and leaves and unripe fruit extracts of D. kaki. Green synthesis of ii nanosized particles in this study was found simple, safe, economic and eco-friendly. Biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles were measured in both plant parts and found an absorption peak at 380 nm by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Further, FESEM analysis showed the size approximately in range of 40-50 nm in D. kaki and 20-30 nm in D. malabrica. XRD analysis attested the crystallinity of ZnO NPs while EDS study exposed the presence of two peaks of Zn and oxide ions in nanoparticles. Functional groups of phytochemicals indicated by FTIR analysis were amines, alcohols, alkanes, and phenols in plant parts could be exposed for capping as well as stabilization of nanoparticles. Collectively, these findings concluded the fact that D.kaki and D.malabarica could be capitalized in pharmaceutical herbal drugs. Our findings suggest a promising antioxidant potential especially for methanol leaves and unripe fruit extracts of D. kaki and bark extract of D. malabarica to cure various ailments related to oxidative damage, aberrant inflammatory, microbial and diabetic responses due to abundance of antioxidants and antioxidant containing phytochemicals. However, further characterization of these bioactive compounds is indispensable. Besides, superficial and green methodology may offer a helpful approach to vast scale synthesis of different nanoparticles that have developing benefits in bio-technology.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherGovernment College University, Faisalabaden_US
dc.subjectPhysical Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectApplied Chemistryen_US
dc.titlePhytochemical and Biological Investigations of Selected Species of Ebenaceae Familyen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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