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dc.description.abstractRecently, scientists have developed a great interest in newly discovered material “Graphene.” The hydrophobic nature of graphene limits its applications in Biomedicine. Graphene oxide (GO), a hydrophilic graphene's derivative, serves as a host to biocompatible polymers. The present work was planned to study the applications of GO. GO was synthesized using an improved Hummer’s method. Numerous techniques were used to investigate the morphology, structural and optical properties. A study was planned to observe the solvent’s effect on the optical band gap of silicon doped graphene oxide (Si-GO). It is concluded that the solvent effectively affects the optical band gap of Si-GO. Another study was performed to investigate the optical characteristics of Si-GO. It was observed that the intensity of emission increased with doping and is almost twice with 8% Si doping than as-grown GO. Moreover, GO applications in biomedicine were investigated by the following studies. A study was used to determine oxidative stress (OS) induced by a single dose of polyethylene loaded nano-graphene oxide (PEG-nGO). An oxidative marker, namely malondialdehyde and antioxidant markers, namely superoxide dismutase, glutathione, catalase, and S-transferase were measured in major organs of mice. Our results provided evidence that a single dose of PEG-nGO produced increased OS to the major organs. In conclusion, the boosted level of ROS produced by PEG-nGO could be detrimental. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of PEG-nGO in cerebral cortex cells was also examined. Our results showed the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of PEG-nGO. Since the last decade, graphene-based nano-composites have been extensively used to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. A study was planned to compare the polymeric nanoparticles with graphene-based nano-composites for photodynamic therapy. Our results demonstrated that the Liposomes encapsulating polymeric nanoparticles loaded with PSs are more effective at significantly lower energy densities as compared to commercially available Visudyne, and less cytotoxic than graphene-based nano-composites.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherIslamia University, Bahawalpur.en_US
dc.subjectPhysical Sciencesen_US
dc.titleSynthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Graphene Based Nano-Compositesen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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