Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authors: Hussain, Amir
Keywords: Applied Sciences
Agriculture & related technologies
Techniques, equipment & materials
Garden crops(Horticulture)
Siol sciences
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: A survey study was conducted in urban area of Faisalabad to compare concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in cereal and legume crops irrigated with raw effluent, tubewell and canal waters. The results showed that there were significant variation in EC, pH and concentration Cd & Cu of effluents at sampling location due to different sources of effluent and their subsequent dilution in down stream. Raw effluent has 13, 2.5 and 4.5 times higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu than canal water, but were within permissible limits for their use as irrigation water. No significant variations in irrigation quality parameters of canal and tubewell waters at differrent locations were observed. There were elevated levels of AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soils over tubewell or canal irrigated soils but all metals were with in safe limits. About 70% of the metals were deposited in upper 30 cm soil surface. Chickpea, maize and mungbean were found maximum accumulators of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively in grains while the order of Cd in shoot was mungbean > maize > chickpea > wheat. Highest concentration of Zn and Cu was in mungbean shoots. Mungbean roots accumulated the highest amount of Cd, while wheat accumulated Zn and Cu. Effluent irrigated chickpea grain accumulated Cd above permissible limit of WHO (0.20 mg kg -1 ) with mean concentration of 0.177 mg kg -1 while maize and mungbean followed chickpea. Green house study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cd in irrigation water on behavior of Cd, Zn and Cu in soil and their uptake by legume (chickpea, mungbean) and cereal (wheat, maize) crops. Wheat yield was not affected by the application of Cd in canal water up to 5 ppm. Application of Zn and Cu together gave the highest grain yield. Concentration of Cd increased in plant parts by increasing Cd level in irrigation water. The trend of Cu was not consistent but grain Cu was generally increased in chickpea and mungbean crops at the highest level of Cd. Higher levels of Cd in irrigation water also increased grain Cu in wheat. Chickpea yield was not affected by Cd or soil treatments and grain Zn was the highest with the combined application of Zn+Cu. Grain yields of wheat, maize and chickpea were not influenced statistically by Cd in irrigation water. However, yield of mungbean was stimulated with 1 mg L -1 of Cd. Grain Cd in wheat was the lowest with 60 mg kg -1 Zn treatment but not affected in chickpea grain. In general Zn treated soil tends to decreaseCd concentration in plant showing an antagonistic effect. The Cd application in irrigation water caused redistribution of metals in grains, shoots and roots, so the total uptake was not much affected. Effect of Cu soil treatment on concentration on Zn and Cd was not consistent in all crops. Phosphorus was applied @ 0, 50 and 75 mg kg -1 soil to study its effect on Cd, Cu and Zn sorption in laboratory. Application of 75 mg kg -1 significantly increased the sorption of Cd and Zn except Cu due to the P induced sorption in effluent irrigated soils while effect of the other levels remained non-significant. The preference of sorption was found as Cd > Cu > Zn. The sorption followed the Langmuir equation. Effect of various levels of P on availability of Cd, Zn, Cu and P in effluent irrigated soils was studied where two cereals and two legumes were grown. Wheat grain yield was found maximum with half recommended dose (57 kg ha -1 ) of P 2 O 5 fertilizer treatment anog with recommended urea. While higher levels of P did not statistically affect the grain yield of chickpea. Cadmium concentration increased in wheat grain up to recommended N and P (NP 1 ) and decreased with NP 1.5 treatment. Application of P significantly decreased Cu in grain of wheat at all levels. Wheat varieties differed in yield, P concentration, shoot Cd and root Cu accumulation. Variety AS-2002 accumulated fewer metals compared with Bhakkar-2002. Chickpea grain Zn, Cd and Cu were the lowest at higher level of P (NP 1.5 ). Nitrogen application promoted Cd accumulation in chickpea while maximum uptake of Zn and P was in N application alone. Varieties differed significantly in grain yield, shoot and root Cu and P uptake. Mungbean grain Zn and shoot Cd was minimum with NP 1 treatment while grain Cu and Cd were minimum with NP 1.5 and N treatments, respectively. Grain yield was high with NP 1 and varieties differed significantly only in root Cd, grain Cu and root Zn accumulation. In maize, the highest level of P caused less accumulation of Zn, Cd and Cu in grain, and varieties differed in most parameters. Over all, nitrogen treatment (N) caused a decrease in metal accumulation in plant tissues, while P application up to agronomic level generally increased Cd, while higher levels decreased Cd and Zn in plant tissues. Increasing level of P in soil decreased AB-DTPA extractable Zn and Cu while increased Cd. Cadmium contamination of irrigation water increased Cd, while decreased Cu concentration in all plants. Application of P in effluent irrigated soils increased concentration of Cd in crops at agronomic levels, while decreased Zn and Cu.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
840S.pdfComplete Thesis1.96 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
840S-0.pdfTable of Contents53.31 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.