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Title: ' The Kashmir Issue and Plea of Pakistan''
Authors: Aamar, Abdur Rahim
Keywords: Kashmiryat
Languages & Literature
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: University of the Punjab , Lahore
Abstract: The Kashmir issue and Plea of Pakistan is an analytical hypothesis of our thesis in which we are going to discuss the pros and cons of this sensitive issue. We shall argue and analyse the issue, the ancient historical position of Kashmir and its topographical importance. Raj Tarangni’s author Kulhan Pandit writes that he has completed its historical account in 1148 A.D, in Sanskritic language; describing the details of Kashmir rulers; who had ruled for five thousand years. Kalhun also describes that there was no foreign involvement in Kashmir as it was a sovereign State. It has remained an independent State throughout as it was situated in the center of Asian Sub-continent. In the north it is connected with the territory of Tajak & Chines, Turkistan in the East Tibet (China) and in the south Bharat and Pakistan, Afghanistan and democratic Tajikistan. The 750 miles territory connects China, 300 miles with India, 600 miles with Pakistan whereas the 50 miles territory is interconnected Afghanistan. The political upheaval started after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the Punjab as Sikh Sardars fought against one another’s and numerous assassinations took place that resulted in poor control. The certain rebels planned to topple the English Jurisdiction which resulted in the first battle between Sikhs and the Europeans. The Sikhs were defeated and the English soldiers crossed river Sutlej and stationed themselves in Sikh territory. All the people failed to comprehend any alternative measure. On the other hand, Dogra Raja of Jammu Gulab Singh who had not participated in the war secretly developed his relations and understanding with the English rulers. He was nominated to settle the issue with English rulers with the efforts of Maharaja Gulab Singh after which it was decided that the middle estate of Sutlej and Bias would be handed over to the English regime and a penalty of one crore fifty lacs to be paid. Since there was no availability of the cash so that lack of payment of one crore; the passage between river Bias and Sind including all the hilly areas be given to English rulers in compensation. However, by 9th March 1846 A.D. Through Amritsar Pact one passage between Sutlej and Bias another land of Hazara Jammu & Kashmir State. Chamba was handed over to the English rulers. Soon after this pact, Maharaja Gulab Singh made Amritsar Pact, on 16th March 1846. Since he was not in position to pay one crore and fifty lack as compensation of the estate, the State of Chamba was minimized from the rest States. Thus Gulab Singh enjoyed the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir with the sale deed of 75 lacs. Henceforth we see that the Dogra regime had been established in Kashmir; which ended in partition of India in 1947. At the time of Indian independence, the Kashmir issue had gained recognition. Before this “Quit Kashmir” slogan, was raised by Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah and Prem Nath Bzaz in Kashmir. According to Indian Independence Act, British India was to be divided into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan from 15th Aug 1947 A.D. The fate of princely states and those parts of Indian subcontinent, which were not directly ruled by Britain and had retained their own princely powers, remained unclear. These states comprised 45% of its territory. Here at least 600 states were involved. The freedom movement had been planned to extend to the people of states so that a large number could join the Indian Union. Lord Mountbatten. The British viceroy of India confirmed legal independence of the princely states, but directed their rulers to have option of accession either with India or Pakistan. Indian rulers deliberately occupied Hyderabad and Junagarh and made those ultimately part of the Indian Union. All the states except the state of Jammu and Kashmir found them completely associated with either India or Pakistan. Contiguously, both India and Pakistan had the right to accede on population basis the states into their own dominion, but here the decision was awarded to Maharaja; whereas the greater part of Jammu & Kashmir should have gone to Pakistan logically, lawfully, geographically and instantaneously. The issue was confused by the fact that the foremost Muslim leader of the State Sheikh Abdullah was in the prison at the time with the result that Hari Singh was in favour of accession with India. The statement of Sir Albion Banerjee was the first bold voice against the Maharaja, which broke the Kashmiri People’s silence for their rights. The statement of Banerjee proved to be a glimpse of light in the darkness of Kashmir’s political history and Kashmiri people got themselves enlightened by this statement and started to raise their slogans of rights and freedom. All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference was established in October 1932. The founders of the Muslim Conference were Pundit Prem Nath Bazaz and Pundit Gulshan and most of them, were Hindus. Its first president was Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah and General Secretary was Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas. The Landmark and historical achievement of the Muslim Conference was the resolution of 19th July 1947 that decided accession of Jammu and Kashmir State with Pakistan, the sole objective of the Kashmiris. The remarkable resolution was approved at the residence of Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan in Srinagar. To stop this resolution, Dogra Maharaja arrested several workers of the Muslim Conference. In addition, it proved an ignition in political history of Jammu and Kashmir and in the hearts and minds of Kashmiri people. During Jinnah’s stay in Kashmir, the Muslim Conference obtained a great popularity. The National Conference was established in April 1939 and its first President was Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah whereas a controversial person in the history of Kashmir. Many enlightened persons of Kashmir did not like Sheikh Abdullah. National Conference is skewed from the very first day towards Indian Congress Party. It was felt that National Conference was not a famous political party and that was a B team of Indian Congress Party in Kashmir. Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah invited Muhammad Ali Jinnah to visit Kashmir. Later on the repented Jinnah’s visit to Kashmir because the visit proved against the wishes of Sheikh Abdullah. Muhammad Ali Jinnah visited Jammu and Kashmir in May-July 1944. He stayed in Kashmir only for ten days. During his stay in Kashmir, he observed that Sheikh Abdullah was not a patriotic leader for Kashmiri people, rather his visit proved an ignition in the political history of Jammu and Kashmir, in the hearts and minds of Kashmiri people. Muslim Conference was against this movement and they gave the Kashmir people a perception of Azad Kashmir. This was the first coherent thought towards Kashmir Freedom Movement. In Kashmir, Maharaja’s army had no Muslim soldiers at all. He arranged his army mainly from Dogras, Sikhs and Gurkhas in spite of the poor Muslims were formidable fighters. Out of the 71663 citizens of the State who served in British army in the Second World War, 60402 were Muslims whom Maharaja did not trust upon; therefore the king refrained to take them in his army. The prejudice of Hari Singh spoiled Kashmir issue. On the persistence of Mountbatten; he arranged with Maharaja the standstill agreement which was merely a cheat, and after the mutiny in Gilgit, Maharaja Forces were defeated. He arranged the Muslim massacre in Jammu which added fuel to fire. The position was further deteriorated when in early November two carwans of Muslim evacuees who were promised the safe umbrella of Pakistan were, slaughtered by the Maharaja’s men. His soldiers near Khoni Nalla outside Jammu wiped off brutally men, women and childern. As a result of this massacre, about 400,000 Muslims fled into Azad Kashmir and at least One Lac to Sialkot Pakistan. Maharaja who had a cheat standstill agreement with the connivance of Mountbatten, Nehru, Patel, Gandhi etc. had enough time to make an irreasonable agreement of Allegiance with India. He pretended that he was compelled to call the Indian army to rescue and made pact for his defence with India. Now Indian army penetrated into Kashmir while Pakistan army in Muzaffarabd launched the counter attack in Pandu Gali. Jawahar Lal Nehru took up the case to the U. N. O. with the plea that Kashmir is attacked by the tribesmen so that war could be stopped and both India and Pakistan showed generosity to solve the problem amicably since then and till today. I honestly conclude that Indian rulers from Nehru to Manmohan Singh always cheated Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the history tells, never stressed that Kashmiris should have allegiance with Pakistan. He, as per the documents, clearly said that it depended upon Kashmiris that they might have allegiance with Pakistan or India or they might choose to remain independent. Meanwhile, the debate in Security Council started among the members of the United Nations Commission from India and Pakistan. Security Council resolutions on 17th Jan and 20th Jan; 1948, invited all members of controversial issues involved but called on the parties not to aggravate the situation and requested them to inform the Council of any change. In the chapters of the instant thesis, I shall discuss that stress was given on the holding the plebiscite. It will also be seen that despite so many talks and declarations, the mistrust between Pakistan and India could not be breached and that Kashmir issue remained stagnant to the bad luck of the Kashmiri people. However, the chief cause of it has been the double standard and obduracy of India.
Gov't Doc #: 16445
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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