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Title: Removal of Selected Heavy Metals from Drinking Water Samples by Magnetic Graphic Carbon Nanostructures
Authors: Muneeb Ur Rehman Khattak, Muhammad
Keywords: Chemistry
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: The heavy metal is considered as severe pollutants owing to their toxicity, persistence and bio-accumulative nature in environment. Drinking water contamination with different chemicals and heavy metals, released from different anthropogenic sources has become a global concern. The pollution of drinking water is a relatively new problem due to which increase in stress is arising as a result of unprecedented growth in population, urbanization, and industrialization in recent years. The contamination of water resources has important reflection for the environment and human health. The present study was aimed to determine the heavy metal contamination levels in ground water samples from various areas of Pakistan. Furthermore a novel adsorbent was prepared to remove heavy metals from drinking water. The determination of heavy metals in drinking water was carried out in the samples of selected districts from four provinces of Pakistan. The results showed that the level of Arsenic was found maximum 6.74 ug/L in DI Khan district of KPK whereas the maximum concentration of lead 9.38 ug/L were observed in drinking water samples from district Abbottabad of KPK province. The level of chromium and copper were found within the permisible limits of samples collected from selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. Whereas the zinc was found 10.849 ug/L in the samples collected from district Abbottabad KPK. In case of Punjab province the highest concentration of chromium 6.80 ug/L was determined in the samples from district Bahawalpur whereas all the heavy metals concentration of all the studied samples were examined within the limits. The concentration of zinc was determined maximum 10.431 ug/L in the samples of district Bahawalpur followed by 10.38 ug/L in the samples collected from Lahore district. The contamination of heavy metals in the samples of drinking water from Sind province was noted highly contaminated with zinc 35.0 ug/L in the samples of district Hyderabad followed by 31.0 ug/L in the samples collected from district Karachi and 29.0 ug/L in the samples from district Sukkar. While Sukkar district showed the concentration of Arsenic 9.00 ug/L whereas the concentration of lead 7.321 ug/L was found higher in district Hyderabad samples. Maximum samples were found within the limits for heavy metals contamination in Baluchistan province however the zinc content 36.24 and 31.00 ug/L were noted highest value in the drinking water samples of Jaffarabad and Zhob districts respectively. Keeping in view the heavy metals contamination from various provinces of Pakistan, a novel adsorbent from water melon and melon waste were prepared to remove these heavy metals from drinking water. The magnetic carbon nano structure from water melon and melon waste were prepared in a specially designed chamber consists of an electric heater, inlet for nitrogen gas and an outlet for exhaust. The prepared adsorbents were then characterized by scanning electron Microscope (SEM) for size and surface morphology whereas X-ray diffratimeter (XRD) was used for confirmation of crytallinity. The EDX results showed the elemental analysis of Iron and oxygen followed by TG/DTA characterization for determination of its thermal stability. The kinetics studies showed that the Pseudo-first order kinetic model was best fit for the adsorbent prepared from water melon waste while the Pseudo-second order kinetics model was best fit for the adsorbents prepared from melon wastes. Removal of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) from aqueous solution has been investigated by batch studies and the adsorption of heavy metals on the prepared adsorbents was dependent on various factors like solution pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, initial loading of contaminant and contact time. The adsorption on both adsorbents was highly affected by pH providing maximum adsorption above pH 7 whereas equilibrium was achieved in 280 mins for adsorbent prepared from water melon waste and 320 mins. for the adsorbents prepared from melon waste. Giles adsorption isotherm was C type for both the adsorbents and heavy metals except Giles isotherm for Arsenic and Chromium for melon and water melon waste which were L type. Freundlich isotherm model for adsorbent prepared from melon waste was recognized to be the best fit model indicating multi-layered adsorption on heterogeneous adsorption sites of the adsorbent with maximum adsorption capacity. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metals adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The spontaneous character of the process is signified by the negative values of at different temperatures as well as shows high affinity of the heavy metals towards the prepared adsorbents. As the values of increases with the increase in temperature shows that at high temperature the adsorption process is more favorable for the heavy metals adsorption.
Gov't Doc #: 16785
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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