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Title: Pahari Language of Azad Kashmir: A corpus Based Grammatical Description
Authors: Khalique, Shahida
Keywords: English
Languages & Literature
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
Abstract: This study aims to present the description of Pahari, a hitherto undocumented South Asian language spoken in the Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir (henceforth AJ&K), Pakistan. The analysis presented in this study is based on the data collected between 2013-2016 from Pahari speakers. The data consists of word lists and recorded texts which were recorded and transcribed from ten informants. This description is divided into two sections focusing on morphology and syntax of the language. Part one of the study deals with morphology of word classes, while the later part analyses the syntax of simple clauses and syntax of complex clauses. This work has established that Pahari has distinctive morphological properties parallel to other languages across South Asia. Pahari has both inflected and uninflected words. It uses suffixes on verbal and nominal categories to provide information about tense gender, and number. Along with the main verb, auxiliaries in Pahari are also used to represent correct tense, mood and aspect. Pahari auxiliaries like main verb inflect for tense, aspect, number and gender. The language also exhibits the morphological processes such as derivation, reduplication and compounding. Pahari distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and seven cases. The verb has four forms: an unmarked form or the root, and three marked forms that are perfective, imperfective and infinitive. These forms of verb are regular and inflect for tense, aspect, mood, number and gender. The grammatical relations in the language are marked through postpositions rather than prepositions. Except nominative that is bare, all other cases in Pahari are marked by a postposition. Pahari has a split-ergative system with ergative case marked on the agent subjects when the verb appears either in the perfective aspect or past tense. Furthermore, unlike its sister languages, it exhibits ergativity on some phonological grounds. The ergative case marker does not appear on subject that ends with vowel while subjects that end with consonants are overtly ergative marked. The accusative case marking in Pahari is also not totally akin to the accusative marking in its sister language of the region. Direct objects in Pahari independent of whether they are animate or inanimate are accusative marked. The accusative marker is usually dropped in the sentence where the subject- object distinction is clear. In Pahari, suffixes on verb encode the habitual and progressive aspects while the perfective aspects are encoded by light verbs in complex predicates. The study also reveals that typologically Pahari is a left branching verb-final language. The canonical word order of Pahari is SOV but for some pragmatic reasoning it also shows flexible word order. In complex structures the unmarked order is a main clause followed by the complement clause. Adverbial clauses in Pahari often precede the main clause however; they may follow the main clause for some pragmatic functions. The relative clause commonly appears to precede the correlative clause. Nevertheless there are the instances where the relative clause follows the correlative clause. In conditional clauses, either the if-clause precedes the main clause or the main clause precedes the if-clause but the if-clause preceding the main clause is the preferred order. Primarily the verb agrees with a nominative subject or a nominative direct object, i.e., an unmarked noun. In addition, the Pahari verb also shows a pronominal agreement.
Gov't Doc #: 19284
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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