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Title: Effects of Household Cooking Methods and Some Food Additives on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Formation in Small Ruminants (Goat, Sheep) Meat Varieties in Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Ahmad, Naseer
Keywords: Chemistry
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Government College University, Faisalabad
Abstract: In this research formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in goat and sheep meat were studied during natural gas grilling, wood charcoal grilling and oil frying. The effect of different types of condiments in reducing the formation of PAHs during these procedures was also studied. The meat of five organs (chest, foreleg, heart, hind leg and liver of goat and sheep was obtained and cleaned well. After homogenizing, except control, each sample was cooked using three procedures and all the samples including controls after extracting and concentrating were analysed and identified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the mass of titled eight HPLC identified PAHs was verified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). The concentration of the tittled eight PAHs in control samples was not observed to be significant and the maximum increase in said eight PAHs was observed due to wood charcoal grilling. In case of goat, hind leg showed maximum concentration of PAHs in all cooking methods, ranging up to 11.11ng/g in gas grilling, 30.39ng/g in wood charcoal grilling and 24.82ng/g for oil frying. The minimum concentrations were found in liver ranging 0.47ng/g for gas grilling, 1.31ng/g for wood charcoal grilling and 0.74ng/g for oil frying. Similar trend of PAHs production was found in sheep meat. Effect of condiments on the formation of titled eight PAHs explained that modified condiments type III (Normal condiments + onion + garlic + ginger + clove + lemon juice) proved to be the best to reduce the formation of all the selected PAHs in the heat treated meat samples. T-test and ANOVA statistically confirmed the results with 95% confidence interval. It was concluded that open flame grilling should be avoided and condiments used prior to cooking minimize the production of PAHs.
Gov't Doc #: 19106
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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