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|Urdu Ghazal Main Hijrat ka Tajurba
Languages & Literature
|Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences & Tech. Islamabad
|Migration is a multidimensional area but my topic is the effects of migration on poetry pertaining to the migration of the selected poets. This dissertation consists of the following five chapters. Chapter one, "Migration: Historical perspective and its effects on literature" demonstrates the meaning and definitions of migration, its need and importance as described in the diction, in the Holy Quran and in Hadith (Narration). Among the possible types of migration, the different migrations include migrations of the Prophets of Allah e.g. of the Prophet Noah, Abraham, the Christ, Moses and the Prophet Joseph. In the same way, the migration in the beginning of Islam like migration to Abyssinia and Madinah. After that, the migrations caused by the wars, calamities and other migrations of the human history; later on the after the partition of India and the Russian attack on Afghanistan resulting in migration whereas, in the current situation, the migration from Syria to Europe have also been analyzed. Chapter Two "The experience of migration in the classical Ghazel" discusses the migration from Wali from Dakkan (Wali Dakkani) upto the migration of the poets from Delhi during the war in 1857; discussing the classical poets who migrated during this period and how did they describe this experience in their Ghazels. This includes Mir, Sauda, Qaim, Mir Hassan, Jurra't and Majrooh. The work of these poets has been discussed temporally. Third chapter "The depiction of migration in the modern Urdu Ghazel" has further been divided into three sub headings. The first part deals with the portrayal of migration in the poetry of the migrated poets before the partition of India, the second part discusses the Ghazels of the migrated poet after the partition of India whereas the third part consists of the discussion on the poetry of the native (who are not migrated) poet. In this way, the chapter deals with the analysis of the works of the poets who migrated prior to the partition including Sufi Tabassum, Akhter Shirani, Ehsan Danish and others. Afterwards, the poetry has been discussed of the poets who migrated during the partition of India. This section includes Taluk Chend Mehrum Hafeez Jalandhari, Josh Malihabadi, Juggan Nath Azad, Habib Jalib, Jaun Elia, Saba Akbarabadi, Tabish Dehlvi, Hafeez Hoshyarpuri, Anjum Rumani, Munir Niazi, Zia Jalandhari, Arif Abdulmateen, Ada Jafferi, Nasir Kazmi, Jamil Uddin Aali, Shehzad Ahmed, Himayat Ali Sha'ir, Ibne Insha, Sirshar Siddiqui, Saleem Ahmed, Risaa Chughtai, Mustafa Zaidi, Mohsin Bhopali, Muzzafar Warsi, Ather Nafees, Kishwar Naheed, Fehmeeda Riaz, and others. The works of these poets have been analyzed with reference to migration. In the third part, the description of migration has been discussed int eh poets works of the native poets including Firaq, Faiz, Nadeem, Qateel, Shohrat Bukhari, Ahmed Faraz, Zafar Iqbal, Isra Ulhaq Maffaz and Ali Sardear Jaffery. In the fourth chapter titled, "The Poets who migrated abroad" the poetic works of the modern poets who have settled poutside Pakistan. This section includes the Zhazels of Ahmed mushtaq, Basir Sultan Kazmi, Latif Kalim, Ashfaq Hussain,Hassan Javed, Dr. Yousaf Qamar, Saqi Farooqi, Aasi Kashmiri, Jamil Urrehman, Mansoor Afaq, Naseem Syed, Irfan Aziz, Muhammad Mumtaz Rashid, Tasnim Abidi, Nazir Qamar and Saira Batool. These are the poets who; while living abroad; have depicted their love for country, the problems of migrated and the loneliness of the self in their poetry and enriched the Urdu Ghazel with their artistic description of the pangs of migration as the subject of their poetry. The fifth chapter, "holistic analysis" the fidings of the research have been presented. In the end, the list of the "bibliography" and "references" has been enlisted that have been during the completion of this research.
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