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Keywords: Applied Sciences
Chemical engineering
Food technology
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: Maillard reaction is an imperative reaction that produces flavoring compounds in various food items. Additionally, some toxic compounds are also formed during this non- enzymatic reaction that mainly includes acrylamide and hydroxymethyl furfural. Current research was conducted to detect the concentration of acrylamide production during Maillard reaction in various model systems as well as in bakery items. Moreover, the reduction of acrylamide concentration by using various mitigation strategies was also included in the study plan. For the purpose, Maillard model systems were prepared by utilization of amino acids and reducing sugars. Two amino acids, glutamine and asparagine and two reducing sugars, glucose and fructose were taken and model systems were prepared by heating the samples in Reflux apparatus for 1 hr followed by Clevenger apparatus for 4-6 hrs in the presence of dichloromethane (solvent). About 1ml sample was obtained by evaporation of separated solution in rotary evaporator. Then, acrylamide was examined by using the technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Subsequently, mitigation strategies like vacuum oven, calcium chloride and pectin were applied on these model systems and acrylamide was analyzed. Maximum acrylamide concentration was observed by GC-MS in control i.e., 22.37±1.9μg/g, while minimum (3.51±0.5μg/g) was recorded in pectin-treated model system. On the basis of model systems, minimum concentration (9.63±8.1μg/g) was examined in Fructose-Glutamine model system. The two; pectin-treated Fructose/Glutamine (F/Gm) and Glucose/Glutamine (G/Gm) model systems that contained very low amount of acrylamide were selected for further safety and product analysis. For the safety assessment, two selected model systems were added in water as 0.5 and 1% concentration and given to four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats. Control model system, F/Gm that contained less amount of acrylamide was given to the fifth group. Serum analysis, liver function tests, protein tests and renal function tests were performed. It was revealed that minimum values of AST and ALT were observed in group 2 (0.5% pectin-treated G/Gm model system) i.e., 85.33±3.5 and 71.00±3.0IU/L, respectively due to less acrylamide formation. Minimum serum total protein was recorded as 4.73±0.1g/dL in group 3 (1% pectin- treated G/Gm model system), correspondingly. Minimum A/G ratio (0.87±0.12) was recorded in group 1 (control) due to high acrylamide production. Urea explicated significant variation from group 1 (control) to group 5 (1% pectin-treated F/Gm model system) i.e., 92.67±4.0 to 40.00±7.9mg/dL, respectively. Afterwards, bakery products, bread, cookies and chapatti were prepared by using 0.5 and 1% concentration of F/Gm and G/Gm model systems. Acrylamide concentration was determined in bread by using GC-MS and it was found that minimum value of acrylamide (0.07±0.08μg/g) was recorded in T 4 (1% pectin-treated F/Gm model system). Acrylamide content was decreased from 1.93±1.9 to 0.88±1.5μg/g during the entire study. In cookies, minimum acrylamide concentration (0.09±0.09μg/g) was recorded in T 4 (1% pectin-treated F/Gm model system). The acrylamide content was decreased from 1.17±1.6 to 0.52±0.6μg/g during the entire study. In chapattis, high acrylamide concentration (2.39±0.35μg/g) was observed in T 0 (control). Conversely, minimum value of acrylamide concentration (0.11±0.10μg/g) was recorded in T 4 (1% pectin-treated F/Gm model system). Acrylamide content was reduced from 1.4±0.9 to 0.80±0.8μg/g during the entire storage period in chapattis. So, it is concluded that pectin-treated model systems reduced higher quantity of acrylamide content as compared to other mitigation strategies.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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