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Title: Heavy Metal accumulation in dietary vegetables and its toxicological impact on human health
Authors: Ali, Fawad
Keywords: Chemistry
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
Abstract: Municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals is used in for growing crops in the sub urban metropolitan localities. The use of highly polluted wastewater for irrigation purpose by local farmers has been in practice since long which has contaminated and drastically polluted the irrigation soil. Those pollutants are believed to have been transferred to our food chains leading to serious heath related issues. Prolong utilization of unhygienic wastewater for vegetable cultivation has contaminated the soil and accumulate heavy metals in dietary vegetables. Health risk assessment of this unhygienic practice is important to understand because it can provide valuable source of information about any serious health threat to the local population. Untreated effluents from Hayatabad Industrial Estate of Peshawar city and Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate of Swabi are regularly released into local irrigation channels (streams and canals). Blood analysis of industrial workers was important to know about the heavy metal effect on human health. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether exposure to Pb induces lipid peroxidation and biochemical abnormalities in spent lead acid battery (LAB) workers. An investigation has been conducted to ascertain metal concentrations in the wastewater, soil, vegetables and in the blood of spent battery workers. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Pb level in blood was determined by graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Oxidative stress parameters were examined by Spectrophotometer. Liver function tests were conducted with Abbott architect Ci8200 and hematological parameters were measured with automated hematology analyzer sysmex. The present study was conducted in five districts (Peshawar, Mardan, Nowshera, Charsadda and Swabi) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Fresh vegetables were collected from fields of Peshawar and Swabi, while bucket survey method was used for random sampling of vegetables from markets of three districts (Mardan, Nowshera and Charsadda). Blood samples were collected from various spent lead acid battery workers from Peshawar. Heavy metals found higher in wastewater irrigated sectors as compared to fresh water sectors. pH and total suspended solids (TSS) in wastewater were found to be higher than permissible limit set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2007). These results revealed that Cr concentration in the wastewater was well above the permissible limits of United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which may lead to a detrimental effect on soil quality deterioration, ultimately leading to food contamination. The source identification analysis carried out by Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis (CA) showed that ground water and soil were being polluted by the trace metals coming out from industries and domestic wastes. Moreover, PCA extracted two factors for wastewater, each contributing 61.086 % and 16.229 % of the total 77.315 % variance. PCA extracted two factors, for soil samples, having total variance of 79.912 % factor I and II contributed 63.889 % and 16.023 % of the total variance. Anova analysis showed significant difference in soil samples for Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu at P ≤ 0.001, for Mn at P ≤ 0.05 while no significant difference was observed for Fe respectively. Anova analysis also exhibited highest mean value for Pb in cabbage, Cr in cauliflower, Cd and Ni in lettuce, Zn in green pepper, Cu in red pepper, Fe and Mn in green pepper respectively. In bucket survey method analysis, concentration of Pb was found to be higher in cabbage, Cr in cauliflower, Cd in cabbage, Ni in garlic, Zn, Fe and Mn in green pepper respectively. Substantial positive correlation was found among the soil and vegetable contamination. Transfer factor for some metals including Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cd and Cu was greater than 0.5 which showed enhance accumulation of these metals due to contamination caused by domestic discharges and industrial effluents. Linear regression analysis indicated significant correlation of heavy metals viz Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in vegetables with concentration in soil of 0.964 at P ≤ 0.001. Health assessment via consumption of dietary vegetables revealed higher than permissible limit (HRI > 1) for Pb and Cd in children and adults. Health risk of Pb and Cd due to consumption of wastewater irrigated vegetables in the study areas is of much concern. Enrichment factor (EF) due to consumption of vegetables was found to be higher for Pb and Cr respectively. The blood samples result showed that blood lead level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) while the level of glutathione (GSH) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in exposed groups compared to control group. Pb showed positive significant correlation with SOD (smoker, exposed group II) and MDA (non smoker, unexposed group II). The values of liver function tests of lead acid battery workers were found to be within the normal range in all age groups except for the albumin content and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Pb showed negatively significant correlation with total bilirubin of unexposed group II. AP activity was significantly higher in both the exposed groups I and II, while Albumin level was found to be lower both in the exposed groups I and II. Pb showed positively significant correlation with WBC and platelet of unexposed group II. The present study revealed that prolonged exposure to Pb is likely to induce lipid peroxidation and biochemical abnormalities in battery workers. Moreover, the likelihood of higher pollution load index for vegetables in the study area due to metal polluted soil has opened a new study area for proper legislation to protect local population from further contamination of vegetables. It is envisaged that the current research work may reveal further serious health risks to human population of the study area.
Gov't Doc #: 18986
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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