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Title: US Image in Urban Pakistan: An Empirical Assessment
Authors: Asif, Muhammad
Keywords: Political Science
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
Abstract: Positive public images of a nation play pivotal role in cementing the relations at international arena. Consequently, many states invest their human and financial resources, to project their positive images to defend and serve their interests. As a matter of fact, the US image in the world is positive as well negative. Pakistan remained an important ally of USA during and after cold war however Pakistan-USA relations never progressed in a linear direction. The history of relations between the both nations has been marked by periods of courtship and phases of distrust. The relationship sometimes brought the two states to close friendship and sometimes to hostility. The engagement and disengagement between the two states often coined with the divergence of their national interests. No doubt, it was only the national interest of two states which binds them in either friendly or hostile relationship. The global agenda of USA basically revolved around its own political, economic and strategic interests in international arena; hence it pursued the policies for its own benefit. The regional agenda of Pakistan too revolved around its security and economic development. The global interests of the USA and regional interests of Pakistan were the main cause of engagement and disengagement between the two states. This empirical study is designed to investigate the factors affecting, molding and promoting the positive or negative images of USA in Pakistan. Five urban centers were selected to evaluate the US image including four provincial capitals namely Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta along with the federal capital Islamabad. Survey method was used to evaluate the US image in all the five urban centers. The target population was further stratified on the basis of gender and qualification. The study leads by two general hypotheses: (1) Majority of Urban Pakistan, across the social and financial strata have negative image of USA. (2) The factors responsible for these negative images are based on legal and ethical ideals of sovereignty, freedom, equality, and constitutionalism. The study has to test these hypotheses in five selected areas: violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty, US policies towards Muslim world, US policies in Afghanistan, mounting Indo-US relations, and US aid to Pakistan. Results of the study show that the factor on which the image of USA was extremely negative is violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty. US policies towards Muslim world, the issue of Afghanistan and rising strategic ties with India especially after the end of cold war are not welcomed by the Pakistani masses and viewed the American image as negative but with less intensity as compared to the factor of violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty. Public supported the US aid program to Pakistan and viewed it as supportive for country’s frail and flimsy economy but at the same time also doubtful about on the political objective of US aid. The study also suggested ways to correct the image of USA in Pakistan in its recommendation, and do contain suggestions for future studies on the relevant theme.
Gov't Doc #: 17732
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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