Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Kabul Under The Mughal Rule (1504-1738 AD)
Authors: Sumaira
Keywords: History
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
Abstract: Kabul was a bridge between Indian Mughal Empire and Central Asia, the ancestral homeland of the founders of the empire. Kabul, one of the most important areas of Afghanistan, carries about 3,500 years old historical records mentioning Kabul with different names like, Kubha, Gandahara, Kabura, Ortospana, Kapul, Zavul, and Zabul etc. all the great warriors and conquerors from Central Asia used Kabul as their route to India and used Kabul as a tool for invading India. It has also remained a trade route to India and was known as a gateway to India. This work intends to shed light on geostrategic significance of Kabul under Mughals and to explore geopolitics, history and etymology of Kabul. Attempts were also made to uncover the area, its inhabitants, their ethnicity, traditions and tribes etc. Kabul flourished under Mughals greatly. Kabul became the foundation stone for the Mughal Empire at India. During the Mughal era Kabul entered into a new phase and with the invasion of Babur the area got the position of the capital of the Mughals. Babur loved the city and it was that love which convinced him to choose Kabul his burial place despite establishing vast Indian Empire. The early Mughal rulers paid much attention to the affairs of Kabul, because their existence at greater extent belongs to their strong hold over Kabul. It was under Mughals that a number of Afghan tribes came to prominence and got important positions, a huge number of them also migrated to India, particularly Bengal. It was not only from Kabul that the Mughals secured the Indian borders from the invaders but from there they could also fulfill their ambitions of conquering the ancestral homeland of Central Asia.Kabul became a gateway for the northern invaders of India, and also a gateway to Central Asia, the Mughal homeland. With the passage of time the Mughal priorities changed in India which also affected Mughal concerns at Kabul. Besides introduction and conclusion there are six chapters in this dissertation. The work deals with the Geography, early History and culture of Kabul. The Babur‟s iii advent at Kabul, his tribal settlement and his foundation of the Indian Mughal Empire affected his rule at Kabul. After the invasion of India Babur never came back to Kabul during his life time but buried there after his demise. His sonHumayun after Babur`s death found himself surrounded by difficulties not only in India but also in Kabul. Humayun also faced wars in India particularly threats from Suris. Humayun after getting defeat from the hands of Sher Shah Suri at India turned towards Kabul to seek the help of his brother Mirza Kamran, but failed. After the loss of India to Sher Shah Suri, the importance of Kabul increased for Humayun and became the centre of attention for both of the brothers, Humayun and Mirza Kamran. Both fought with one another several times for the supremacy of Kabul. At last Humayun got full control over Kabul and it was his control of Kabul that paved the way for him to recapture his lost Indian Empire. Akbar realized that Kabul was the notheren key of India and it was essential to keep the areaunder his control for the safety of his empire. Due to this realization his hold always remained strong on Kabul. It was during the reign of Akbar that Kabul recived great importance and he after getting the possession of Kabul introduced a uniformed system of administration in the area. Akbar at start after his accession to the throne faced many problems in Kabul like his father Humayun. Akbar brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim under the guidance of his mother Mah Chuchak or Juchak begum ruled Kabul independently from Akbar‟s Indian empire. That was the period in which Kabul became a place of disturbance and a home for the rebels of the neighboring areas including India affected also the lives of the general masses of Kabul. Akbar with his strong policy and diplomacy at last became able to grab the authority of Kabul in his own control and made proper extension of Indian administration to Kabul. Akbar carrot and stick policy at last restored peace in Kabul. It was during his rule that the Roshniya movement strengthened itself against the Mughals. The Roshniya threat increased during the reign of Jahangir and Shah Jahan which caused disturbance in the Kabul valley as well as in other parts of India. To control the Roshniyas a number of expeditions were launched against them and Jahangir paid a number of visits to bring peace in the Kabul valley but failed to fully tame the Roshniyas. During Jahangir the Roshniyas were became very strong iv in the area. It was the reign of Shah Jahan that the movment lost it spirit to a greater extent. Uzbegs attacks on Kabul diverted the attention of Shah Jahan to that city. It was Shah Jahan Central Asian expeditions that brought a number of reforms in the valley of Kabul. For the passing of huge army to Balkh and Badakhshan the roads were reconstructed. The expedition ensured the security of Kabul and with the appointment of a number of Afghans to high posts in the army improved their livings.Aurangzeb was the last great and efficient ruler of the Mughal dynasty but it was during his rule that the Mughal authority at Kabul started decreasing because of his negligence of the area. Due to his Deccan policy he could not pay proper attention to Kabul which increased commission there. The history of the region highlights ups and downs in the relations between Mughals and Afghans, the guardians of the valley. Mughals sometimes fought with Yousefzais and sometime allied them. On the other hand Mughals soldiers sometime allied Khattak tribe and sometime fought with them as immortalized by Khushal Khan Khattak in his Pashto poetry. With the passage of time particularly after the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal rulers changed their priority from the security to entertainment and luxury the declined of the empire ushered. The condition of Kabul moved from bad to worst and in spite of changing several governors within a short period of time the situation remained the same. The weak Mughal rulers were not in a position to crush out those disturbance at Kabul which not only encouraged the displeasure of the people of Kabul but it also encouraged the outsiders particularly the Persians to invade the area. At last the Mughals lost the valley of Kabul for good after the invasion of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1738 AD. The march of Kabul in time under Mughals brings to limelight the geostrategic and politico-economic worth of the city.
Gov't Doc #: 18175
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Sumaira_History_HSR_2018_UoP_Peshawar_PRR.pdf1.47 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.