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Title: The Islamia College Peshawar Building: An Analysis of Their Architectural and Decorative Features
Authors: Seemi, Imrana
Keywords: Home Economics
Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
Home & family management
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: University of Peshawar, Peshawar
Abstract: Peshawar city is one of the oldest cities of the subcontinent, previously known as the queen city of South Asia possessing marvelous past with rich history and enthralling cultural traditions. Allah has gifted the region with beautiful lakes, rivers forest and mountains giving way to other areas through different passes. Among them the famous Khyber Pass has played a vital role as a gateway to the subcontinent for invading armies and trading caravans between Central Asia and South Asia since long time. Sub-Continent was invaded by several European invaders which resulted in colonization. This colonization of the Sub-Continent basically influenced the cultural life of the native people in all respect and had many positive and negative impacts on the Sub-Continent. Modern technology, communication systems and better living standards were introduced, but it also led to dependency on Britain and supremacy of the rulers. Along with other influences it affected the architectural style throughout the Sub-Continent. The British rulers added numerous types of buildings like bridges, post office, churches, memorials, hospital, residential and official buildings and educational institutions. Same types of structures were also erected in Peshawar. Islamia College is one of the oldest educational institutions located in the western part of Peshawar founded by Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and Sir George Roos-Keppel in October 1913. The Architectural manner of the building is a blend of Islamic Mughal style combined with typical Curzonean touches. The building with its magnetic structure, embedded by domes, kiosks topped with cupolas and crowing pinnacles and finials, creates a wondering eyes catching site. Darul-Ulum-i-Islamia “Islamia College” now Islamia College University does not merely symbolize a towering building but is a repository of the Muslim’s struggle for independence especially in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, against the prolonged foreign dominance. The layout was designed in symmetrical order, which reflects the Muslim architecture merged with some Gothic features. The institution was provided with all the facilities such as a mosque, library, administration center, hostels, residences, quarters for staff, play grounds and a market as well. The main building has a hall (known as Roos Keppel Hall), fronted on south by a porch having a rectangular clock tower topped by a dome. The parapet of the hall lying between the domes compositions is marked with molded band and balustrade in the form of ring shape marlins. The main building of Islamia College is heavily decorated with different styles of eaves and brackets. The bricked walls of the building give strong impression of solidness and strength. Rectangular and octagonal shaped columns, pointed, cusped and round shaped arches are main focal component of Islamia College architecture. Well-ventilated class rooms and administrative offices are provided with pointed and ellipse shape doors, windows and ventilators. Simple bricks and steel beams ceilings are used in buildings. The Islamia College buildings have well planned water shoot system. The Islamia College buildings are provided with different types of grill in metal and terracotta. Geometrical and floral design motifs are used in Islamia College buildings. During the last century the existence Islamia College has served the people and has gifted enormous benefits to the general mass regarding education. The social benefits that the people will derive from the existence of this prestigious educational institute cannot be evaluated in figures. It may be rationally and vigorously concluded that this center of educational hub will continue to serve the community and is bound to remain a centre of attraction as a proud and rewarding monument of history, a landmark in the urban scale for many more years to come. Architecture of Islamia College represents uninterrupted living tradition existing in architecture of sub continent during the period of British raj connecting present and the past. More emphasis is given to the volume and symmetry with strong attention to intricate details. It represent a blend of Mughal and Gothic architecture. This made the Islamia College buildings more articulate, graceful and temporal. The architectural design became landmark in the history of Peshawar. Islamia College Peshawar is important as it has gone through a long historical period of 100 years and has now recently been declared as national heritage of Pakistan. Due to the requirements and changing academic environment, most parts of the old buildings are subject to frequent maintenance and renovation that has affected the originality and beauty of the structure. The research presents various aspects of the buildings in relation to architecture. It will open new vistas for further research on the other parts of the building.
Gov't Doc #: 15435
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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