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dc.contributor.authorFarooq, Muhammad-
dc.description.abstractThe feasibility of using Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an ingredient in basic diets fed to commercial egg laying and meat purpose strains had been investigated. Different experiments with successive increase of MOLM in feed were conducted to evaluate the potentials of this diet on selected birds. Adequate group of meat purpose and laying birds were assigned to five dietary treatments and the diets were comprised of various MOLM combinations. Diet 1 (T1), which was designated to serve as the control diet and contained basic meal as the main feed source with no MOLM. In addition to other ingredients, Diet-2 designated as T2; Diet-3 as T3; Diet-4 as T4 and Diet-5 as T5 contained MOLM at the rate of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. For data collection, different growth enhancement and egg laying parameters were studied. In each pen, 20-25% more feed by weight was provided to cover the dietary losses during feed intake. Data were collected on daily and weekly basis and analyzed by using CRD statistical design. In all experiments, birds in T2 (5% MOLM) and T3 (10% MOLM) fed on Moringa based diet performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than the birds of the control T1 group in terms of higher feed intake. This result also suggests that the addition of MOLM at levels up to 10% does not negatively affect the feed intake. In egg laying birds, laying percentage significantly increased in birds fed on 5% (T1) and 10% (T2) MOLM. The layer birds in T2 and T3 also excelled (P<0.05) in terms of egg mass production, albumen proportion, Roche colour fan score, egg shape index and egg shell percentage as compared to control treatment while birds in T4 and T5 fed on 15 and 20% MOLM diets performed significantly better in terms of shell thickness and Roche colour fan band number and got higher numerical mean values of yolk index percentage among all treatments. The FCR values of layer birds in T2 and T3 for egg production were significantly better than control which was a desirable trait that’s why egg laying birds grouped under T2 and T3 performed economically and significantly better and generated more profit than all other treatment groups. Data regarded to haematological indices of layer birds showed that there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) in mean values of Eosinophils, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Blood glucose, Serum albumen and Serum globulin ratios while addition of MOLM in diets of layer birds significantly (P<0.05) effected mean values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin, Total protein, A/G ratio, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC and VLDL concentrations. In case of broiler birds there was no statistical difference in mean values of Eosinophils, Lymphocyte and Monocyte Blood glucose, Total protein, Serum albumen, Serum globulin and A/G ratio while addition of MOLM in diets of layer birds significantly affected mean values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDLC and LDLC. In other experiments performed on meat purpose bird it was found that the birds in T2 and T3 treatment group recorded the highest final body weights followed by other treatments. The FCR values of meat purpose birds (broiler and quail) were significantly better in T2 and T3. Addition of MOLM in diets of birds significantly reduced per Kg feed cost and increased (P<0.05) net profit. There was non-significant effect of MOLM inclusion in diets birds on CP, CF and ME of diets in all experiment but the values of crude protein, crude fat and moisture contents (%) in thigh meat were significantly affected by addition of MOLM in diets of layer and broiler birds. It was concluded that MOLM should be incorporated in diets of egg laying and meat purpose avian strains up to 5-10% for accelerating egg and meat production and for generating more profit from flocks. There are not any ill effects of MOLM at any inclusion level, higher levels only reduces performance of chicken birds in terms of growth parameters.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission, Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Agriculture, Faisalabad.en_US
dc.titleNutritional potentials of Moringa oleifera as avian feeden_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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