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Authors: Anjum, Uzma
Keywords: Language
English & Old English
English writing system & phonology
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: Thesis title: Language Shift and the Speech Community: A Sociolinguistic Study of Tarawara Community in Bandi Shungli Language shift is the course by which a speech community in a contact situation (i.e. comprising bilingual speakers) progressively discontinues employing one of its two languages in favor of the other. Attitudes of speakers of a language and existing domain have been taken as vital indicators of vitality and endangerment. Mankiyali, a minority language, spoken in the village of Dana in the Mansehra District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), faces looming threat of extinction. The present research has revealed that the use of the language in different domains is gradually decreasing, and total number of fluent speakers of Mankiyali has reduced to less than 500 individuals. The present study aimed to establish genealogical relationship with Hindko, Gujari and Ushojo, Gowro and Bateri. It analyzed the phonological overview of Mankiyali. It also explored existing domains, factors of maintenance of this language, and causes of looming language shift using ethnographic field qualitative methods. Cross sectional procedures were selected for quantitative paradigm. The lexical comparison of Mankiyali with other languages shows that this language belongs to “Dardic” group of Indo-Aryan languages. It shares higher lexical similarity with Bateri than any other language within the “Dardic “group. According to the lexical similarity analysis, field observation and interviews, Mankiyali is not mutually intelligible with any other neighboring languages including Bateri. This study also presented a preliminary analysis of syllable structures, consonants and vowels of Mankiyali language. The thematic analysis revealed seven domains of Mankiyali in Dana village: family, friendship, neighborhood, religion, cricket ground, education and market. This analysis showed that although Mankiyali language has been transmitted to the next generations but this language group was reportedly in contact situation in all the existing domains. This analysis also explored causes of maintenance and shift of Mankiyali language emerged from the qualitative data. The results have shown that it was mainly the geographic isolation, which maintained this language in this hilly village. However, with abolition of the rule of the Amb state and opening up of various possibilities Tarawara community have led to impending language shift. Quantitative part of the study tested nine hypotheses. First two hypotheses included relationship of the variables of the questionnaire. These variables were exploring language attitudes and the existing domains of this language. The next seven assumptions were comparing very crucial demographic variables such as gender, age, marriage pattern, bilingual and multilingual speakers, education, family systems, and mobility with variable of questionnaire. Most of the hypotheses were found statistically meaningful, moreover, all the assumptions were found in line with the existing literature and qualitative data.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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