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Title: Integrated Management of Phosphorus and Potassium for Maize (Zea mays L.)
Authors: Ali, Muqarrab
Keywords: Applied Sciences
Agriculture & related technologies
Techniques, equipment & materials
Plant injuries, diseases & pests
Garden crops(Horticulture)
Processing dairy & related products
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: In the existing cropping systems exhaustive crops, like hybrid maize, require more nutrient inputs due to excessive removal of nutrients. Integrated use of organic and inorganic manures may not only satiate the need of such crops but this may also be an economical and environment friendly nutrient source. A field study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 following RCBD with three replications at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Effects of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) application from separate and integrated organic and inorganic sources on the maize (Zea mays L.) were evaluated. In the first study poultry manure and press mud as organic amendments; and single superphosphate (SSP) as chemical amendment of P were evaluated in different combinations. In the second study composted wheat and rice straws were integrated with the sulphate of potash (SOP) to be used as the K source. Agronomic, physiological and quality parameters were recorded to establish variations in yield associated with integrated use of organo-chemical P and K fertilizers. In both years the mean grain yield was increased up to 7.48 t ha -1 and 7.2 t ha -1 with the integration of organic and inorganic (25% poultry manure + 75% SSP and 25% composted rice straw + 75% SOP) amendments for integrated P and K management, respectively. The relationship between grain yield and yield components, in both the studies, was highly significant (P<0.05) and positive. In the first study the 5 th treatment (25% poultry manure + 75% SSP) out yielded rest of the treatments due to greater total dry matter production that was resulted from more leaf area duration and higher crop growth rate. Regarding application of K from the integrated sources, treatment containing 25% composted rice straw + 75% SOP gave maximum total dry matter (1928.2 g m -2 ), higher cumulative leaf area duration (218.5 days) and mean crop growth rate (29.01 g m -2 day -1 ). In both studies, there was linear and positive correlation between grain yield and cumulative leaf area duration. Application of 75% SSP with 25% poultry manure and 75% SOP with 25% composted rice straw in both studies showed maximum uptake of P and K, respectively. In both years, the treatment combination of first study, 25% poultry manure + 75% SSP, earned highest net income viz, Rs.84410/- ha -1 and Rs.100695/- ha -1 . Regarding the second study, the integrated use of 25% composted rice straw + 75% SOP earned maximum net income of Rs.77907/- ha -1 and Rs. 84920/- ha -1 , respectively. Results suggested that integration of organic amendments of P and K with inorganic source was significantly better over the separate application of inorganic source.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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