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Title: Probing the Health Claims for Garlic Using a Rodent Experimental Model
Authors: Ashraf, Muhammad
Keywords: Applied Sciences
Chemical engineering
Food technology
Industrial oils, fats, waxes & gases
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: In the present study, locally grown garlic i.e. pink and white were characterized followed by product development phase and nutraceutical evaluation for the management of serum cholesterol, glucose and thrombosis through experimental rats modeling. Compositional analysis illuminated that both garlic verities/line are good source of protein and minerals. Regarding bioactive molecules extraction, methanol exhibited highest polyphenols than that of ethanol and water. The pink garlic extracts showed higher FRAP, DPPH, flavonoids, flavonols, ABTS and tannins values in comparison with garlic white. Moreover, amount of allicin was also higher in pink garlic. On the basis of in vitro characterization with special reference to antioxidant potential, pink garlic preparations were selected for the development of functional soup and further used in bioevaluation trial. Accordingly, four types of chicken garlic soups were prepared after adding whole garlic, garlic powder and garlic oil @ 2, 2 and 1g/100mL serving, correspondingly along with control. The developed chicken garlic soups were subjected to physico-chemical analysis during storage that elucidated non-momentous effect on total soluble solids (TSS) while pH and acidity affected substantially. Likewise, color of the soups affected non-significantly with storage and treatments except for a* value. Sensory response of the functional soup remained within normal range during storage. Afterwards, efficacy study in rats was carried out through two consecutive trials I & II for the validity of results. Bioevaluation study comprised of four groups of rats feeding on whole garlic, garlic powder and garlic oil @ 250, 250 and 100 mg/kg bodyweight, respectively alongside control. The consumption of different garlic treatments imparted non-substantial effect on feed and drink intake during entire study. Likewise, cholesterol and LDL were significantly reduced by different garlic preparations however, pronounced decrease as 11.05 & 9.45 and 17.21 & 15.37% was noticed for whole garlic in trial I & II, respectively. The significant increase in HDL was also recorded in rats rely on whole garlic from 35.36±2.37 to 39.73±2.54 and 33.25±2.11 to 37.22±2.11 mg/dL. Similarly, triglycerides were momentously reduced from 68.52±4.65 to 61.17±4.31 and 68.61±4.25 to 63.42±4.13 mg/dL in trial I & II, respectively. The attenuation in serum glucose of rats is an indicator for the positive impact of garlic treatments on this trait. In this context, garlic oil performed better than rest of the treatments and reduced glucose from 85.40±5.12 to 81.12±5.23 and 88.68±5.20 to 82.98±5.14 mg/dL in respective trials. Likewise, garlic oil consumption resulted 7.79 & 8.33% increase in insulin higher than that of whole garlic and garlic powder 3.62 & 4.38 and 6.03 to 6.79% in trial I & II. Similarly, garlic preparations especially garlic oil imparted substantial increase in bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with significant decrease in plasma fibrinogen (Fg) and platelet aggregation (PG) thus soothing thrombosis. The antioxidant potential of rats was also improved as evident from enhanced serum glutathione and suppressed thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). The whole garlic consumption caused 16.78 & 15.07% elevation in glutathione and 21.23 & 21.98 % reduction in TBARS during the entire trials. Furthermore, the values for liver and kidney functions tests were within the normal range showing the safety of garlic preparations. The whole garlic performed better to control cholesterol along with anti-aging perspectives. Besides, garlic oil ameliorated glucose and thrombosis related variables efficiently. From the instant exploration, it is deduced that garlic based products are effectual to attenuate lifestyle related disorders.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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