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Title: Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb 2+ ) and Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) pollution emitting from automobiles on Motorway (M-3) and National Highway (N-5), Pakistan
Authors: Nawazish, Shamyla
Keywords: Natural Sciences
Plants (Botany)
Specific topics in natural history
Plants noted for characteristics & flowers
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: A study was carried out to estimate metal pollution lead and cadmium (Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ) emitting from automobiles and selection of suitable metal indicators which reflect the pollution level in the atmosphere. Two roads i.e. Motorway (M-3) and National Highway (N- 5) were selected for the purpose of study. The dust and plant samples were collected and Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ contents were recorded at five selected sites of M-3 and N-5. The dust and plant samples 50 m away from both roads were kept as reference control while soil control were taken 15 m away due to irrigated field started and analyzed for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ profile. The maximum Pb 2+ concentration (conc.) i.e. 0.00075 mg g -1 was observed in dust samples of Hojan Town and minimum conc. (0.00016 mg g -1 ) was recorded in Kamalpur Sargodha road. The data collected from N-5 showed maximum Pb 2+ conc. (0.000244 mg g -1 ) at ZIS-textiles and minimum Pb 2+ conc. (0.00042 mg g -1 ) for roadside side dust samples. The maximum Pb 2+ conc. (0.00044 mg g -1 ) was found in roadside soil of Hojan town than that of control (0.00018 mg g -1 ) at M-3 while the high Pb 2+ value (0.0032 mg g -1 ) for roadside soil samples of Sitara valley was followed by conc. (0.00021 mg g -1 ) recorded for Chak. No. 60 Saudagarpur to their respective controls at N-5. All the gas exchange attributes like photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (g s ), internal Carbon dioxide concentration (C i ), water use efficiency (WUE) of roadside plants on both roads decreased for plants which were growing away from the roadside. A decrease was also estimated in total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and total soluble proteins in all the under study plants on both roads. The Pb 2+ conc. was high in smoke samples of bus and coach at Pindi Bhattian Interchange on M-3 and same conc. was noted at Gutwala interchange at N-5. The C. procera accumulated more Pb 2+ (0.0024 mg g -1 ) in their unwashed leaves while 0.00017 mg g -1 was found in washed leaves however low Pb 2+ conc. was noticed in P. robelenii at M- 3 while at N-5, N. oleander accumulated more Pb 2+ i.e. 0.00186 mg g -1 in their leaves while less accumulation of Pb 2+ (0.0012 mg g -1 ) was noticed in unwashed leaves of P. hysterophorus. The high Cd 2+ contents (0.000024 mg g -1 ) were found in unwashed leaves of C. ciliaris and low conc. (0.000016 mg g -1 ) was recorded in C. procera at M-3 while high deposition of Cd 2+ i.e. 0.00007 mg g -1 was noticed in P. hysterophorus and low Cd 2+ traces (0.00002 mg g -1 ) was measured in unwashed leaves of C. ciliaris at N-5.
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