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|Title:||Agro .. Biological Studies of sorghun Through Management of Legum.- Inter Cropping and Methods of Nitrogen Application|
|Publisher:||Gomal University, D.I. Khan|
|Abstract:||To study the effect of management of legumes inlercropping and methods of nitrogen applicatioll 011 sorghllm (Sorghum hieulor L.), two research eX1Jeri:mc'nts were conducted at Farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Raila Kulachi, Dera ISIl1.aiJ Khan, Pakistan during the year 1999-00 and 20UU-0 I. In til\! first experiment, two dilrerent intercrops viz. mungbean (Viglla raJiaw) and guar (Cyamopsis Iil/mgolloloha,) were studied in three geometrical patterns of the base (sorghum). In the second experiment, four different levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 90 120 kg ha· j ) were evaluated with two different methods (soil application and foliar spray) of application on the growth characteristics and grain yield sorghum. The experiments were planted on 22"1 and 26'1< July during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Agronomic data recorded on different gro\.\1h characteristics and grain yield of the crop, were analyzed statistically through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test was employed 10 compute the significance of variance among treatment means The data revealed that the Leaf Area Index (LAl), number of panicle'l. weight of grain pancilc'!, grain and stalk yield and protein content IX of sorghum were ma~imllm in tile geometrical pattern of double row (30/90 em) strips plal1ling as compared to triple row (301120 em) snips and conventional planting of single rows (60 cm apan) The growing of legumes (mungbean and guar) as imercrops significantly reduced the yield componenlS (number and weight of grains panicle") and grain yield of sorghum, But. the additional harvest obtained from the imcrcrops compensated more than tile losses incurred in sorghum yield, The sorghum grain protein contem was also with intercropping of both the legumes than sole sorghum, The highest L and I was recorded in case of double row strips (30/90 em) planting pattern of sorghum with two rows of 111unghean as intercrops between 90 cm space of sorghulll mcome during 1999-00 and 2000-0 I, res;pecti',eI'y Similarly, hioh,,,<. net and 2.32 Rs. 28137150 ami 15 11- wil h benefit cost rat io of was obtained wilen two rows of mUllgbean were intercropped between the double row (30190 em) strips of sorghum during 1999-00 and 2000-0 I. respectively, This suggested that the geometrical pattern of double row (30/90cm) strips of sorghum with two rows of mungbean as IIltercrops hp""",pn the 90 em space might be the most efficient practice lor optimum utilization of the available resources and maximizing 'he net income from the same piece of land as compared to rnonoculture and legume imercropping in conventional method of planting (60 cm apart rows) and or in triple row (301120 em) planting pallem of sorghum. The yield components and grain yield of sorghum were increased linearly and significantly up to the level of 90 kg N ha-I but additional increment Itl nitrogen supply could not any perceptible improvement in growth of sorghum, In case of method of applicatioll, soil applied nitrogen was found superior than foliar spray orit in all the traits of growth parameters and yield. On the basis of two years average data, the different levels of nitrogen 60,90 and 120 kg applied through soil 26.09, 33.26 and AO percent increase in LAL 37.90, 46.20 and 45.88 percent in number of grains panicle,l, 40.52. 48.78 and 48.63 percent in grain weight panicle' I and 39.04, 49.13 and 48.95 percent in grain yield as compared 10 increase of 22.80. 30.41. and 30.41 percent in LA!. 34.51,43.77 and 43.21 percent in number of grains panicle", 37.09,46.39 and 45.96 percent in grain weight panicle" and 3394, 46.72 and 4593 percent in grain yield obtained with foliar spray of these levels of nitrogen over untreated (control) sorghulIl, respectively. The grain quality sorghum was also improved with nitrogen application than umrealed (control) sorghum. These results suggested that the nitrogen level of 90 kg ha'i through applicatioll method was an elliciellltechnique for increased crop yield ofsorghulll.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.|
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