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Title: Integration of Some Management Techniq for Increased Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L)
Authors: Baloch, Mohammad Safdar
Keywords: Applied Sciences
Chemical engineering
Food technology
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan
Abstract: A research project was initiated at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan during 2002 and 2003; to provide appropriate rice cultivation technologies that are agronomically practicable and economically viable under the agro-climatic conditions of the area. The research project was based on field-oriented problems faced by the paddy growers, which was also evident from face to face interviews by 50 rice growers, actively involved in rice production from major rice growing villages of the area. field experiments relating to time of transplanting and number of seedlings hi!r' and techniques for weed control in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split-plots arrangements, replicated 4 times. The transplanting dates of nursery and methods of planting were maintained in main plots while the number of seedlings hill" and weed control techniques were kept as sub-plots. The sub-plot size was 2 x 5 m" The trial pertaining to impact of seeding techniques in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was deSigned in RCB with a plot 3 x 5 m2, replicated 4 times. Well-adapted coarse rice variety IR-6 was used in the research project. Thirty days old rice nursery was used in transplanted plots while wet pre-germinated seed was broadcast in direct seeded plots. Data were recorded on various growth and yield parameters like plant height (em), productive tillers m-', unproductive tillers m-', panicles m-', spikelets panicle-" sterility and normal kernels percentage, 1000-grain weight (g), paddy yield (t ha') and straw yield (t ha') The data were also recorded on leaves planr', leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR) at 45 and 90 days after sowing (DAS), stem borer moths' resting behaviour at 30, 45 and 60 DAS and white heads planr' after 90 DAS in all experiments of the project. The sample size in experiment 1 was determined by using simple random sampling procedure of probability sampling. A sampling frame was developed that carried details of farmers involved in rice production. This was identified by collecting information from the key informants. The findings of the survey elucidated that water shortage, high cost of inputs, non-availability of skilled labour during peak planting season, sub-optimal plant population, weeds and pest infestation, high dependence xiv of knowledge on nearby growers and low price of nce in Ihe locel markel were the major restrictions in higher yields of rice, In experiment 2, the effects of transplanting dates and number of seedlings hilr' were found 10 be significant in most of the agronomic and physiological parameters studied The highest paddy yield during 2002 and 2003 (5 and 8,1 t ha") respectively, higher net return of Rs, 7,830 and 23,330 /la"and Benefil Cost Ralio (BCR) of 0.44 and 1,32 were recorded on 20'h June planted crop with 1 seedling hiW' during both the expenmental years, Similarly in experiment 3, the effect of planting tec/1niques (transplanting VS, direct seeding) and weed control practices including granular herbicide Sunstar 15WG (Ethoxy sutfuron), conventional hand weeding and herbicide Machete 60EC (Butachlor) Significantly influenced the yield and yield centributing attributes during either year of the study Both the Sunstar and Machete application proved their efficacy against the weeds but could not match with hand weeding treatment Minimum weed population m', dry weed biomass g m" after 30, 60 and 90 DAS and maximum paddy Yletd (5.7 and 8.5 t he") during both the experimental years and its assOCiated components were receded in transplanting method as compared to direct seeding. Similarly, among weed control strategies, the paddy yield, net return of Rs,13, 815 and 27,815 ha'and BCR were the highest in hand weeding, followed by herbiCide application of Machete 60EC, The direct seedmg method could not perform in a good way in terms of low paddy yield and high weed infestation. While in experiment 4, the effect of seeding techniques was significant for most of the agronomic and physiological parameters However, transplanting Hat and parachu1e planting techniques showed the outstanding performance for most of the characters investigated. Maximum net relum of Rs. 12,630 and 15,730 and 6,050 and 14,800 was recorded In transplanting on flat and parachute planting techniques, respectively dunng both the planting seasons Other seeding techniques such as diract seeding on flat, direct seeding on ridges and transplanting on ndges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting in most of the ahributes recorded. On the basis of research findings, it is concluded that conventional transplanting technique on flat with a plant-ta-plant and row-ta-row spaCing of 20 em is most suitable on planting date 20" June with 1 seedling hill". Among weed control practices, hand weeding is most effective, followed by herbicide treatment Machete 60EC Nursery preparation and seedling broadcasting of parachute technology although, a cumbersome job but produced higher paddy yield and nel return per unit area.
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