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dc.contributor.authorCHANNA, ZAHID HUSSAIN-
dc.description.abstractResettlement is one of the core issues of mega development projects, especially in developing countries. Previous experiences have shown that in Pakistan resettlement has remained one of the highest ranked problems. In this regard, the present study was conducted in the Coal area of district Tharparkar. Using the descriptive survey method, a sample of 290 respondents were personally interviewed. Qualitative as well as quantitative data was analyzed and reported. During the survey of the area and study of secondary sources of information revealed that Thar coal field is spread over 9100 square kilometers. However, the major Thar coal area is limited to 1109 square kilometers, which possesses about 30 billion tons of the coal reserves. Efforts have been made to depict the qualitative and quantitative information of this area with especial reference to human, social, physical, natural and financial capital. The Major conclusion of this study revealed that like other parts of Tharparkar district, Thar coal field area is less densely populated. Rain fed agriculture with livestock is a major source of income, contributing 64% of the total household income. The overwhelming majority (89%) of the households reported goats while 55% possessed the cattle. For transportation and digging water, the donkey was major source, as reported by 93% of the household. Poverty, illiteracy, unemployment is basic issues of the dwellers. Hence, it is one of the assumption that due consideration is invited for developing a resettlement plan of the Thor Coal field area. Despite less income opportunities, local dwellers prefer to stay in their ancestral lands due to natural sceneries of Tharparkar and more peaceful area. Relatively higher growth rate of population (3.13 %) in Tharparkar as compared to growth rate (2.8%) of whole Sindh. Population of Non-Muslims, especially Hindus are relatively higher in Thar coal field areas like Tharparkar district in comparison to other parts of the country where the proportion of Non-Muslims is around 3%. After partition (1947) majority of the Non-Muslims population migrated to other countries especially to India. Major reasons are already given above in addition to less religious extremism in the area. It was therefore observed that social and natural capitals were worth mentioning and reported as compared to other capitals viz. Human (low literacy), financial (low income), physical (huts and non- metaled roads). Low literacy rate of the study area (18%) has been documented and reported as compared to 45% of the province as well as of the whole country. Using logistic regression models where a dichotomous variable (whether happy to migrate from Thar coal area to other areas; do not want to migrate= No=0, and people willing to migrate = Yes=1), significant factors were identified. Livestock, religious division and land ownership were significant indicators at 5% level of significance. While monthly income was significant at 10% level of significant. Importantly, division of community on the basis of religion revealed that relatively less proportion of Non-Muslims (Hindu) were not willing to migrate from the Thar coal area. In addition, respondents with low income and the landless were not willing to migrate. The developed model reported R square of 0.621 which revealed that about 62 percent variation in the variable ‘whether willing to migrate was explained by the above mentioned variable. The research demonstrated, Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1894 has failed to address the critical issues of the displaced people in large development projects in Pakistan. Consequently, displaced people lost their inherit land, homes, livelihoods and social network. The study reveals that there has been a substantial gap between government, affected people and project proponents in the handling of negative impacts of the mega projects which impoverished the displaced people. So it is recommended that revised the resettlement policy (LLA, 1894) and includes rights of Indigenous people to the Thar coal field area in the concept of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) which provides participation of affected people and authorization on their resources to start any development activity, reflects full information and its proposed impacts on the displaced people of the project vicinity.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission, Pakistanen_US
dc.subjectSocial sciencesen_US
dc.subjectDevelopment studiesen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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