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Title: Exploratory Study on Existing Managerial Practices of Heads Influencing Teachers' Moral of Primary Schools
Authors: Khan, Najeeb Ullah
Keywords: Social Sciences
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: University of Sargodha, Sargodha
Abstract: Morale is a mental state of an individual or group. It primarily relates to the feelings, happiness, comforts, and overall satisfaction about a job or workplace. High morale generates a working environment and increases productivity in a right direction whereas low morale entails numerous problems like reduction in productivity, low performance, and enthusiasm. Teachers’ morale has a central position in the schools that is usually influenced by the managerial practices of school heads. The public school heads have been using diverse managerial practices. Such practices are affecting teachers’ professional, domestic, ethical, emotional and psychological matters which are adversely influencing the morale of teachers. Consequently the public schools teachers are under stress and strain, and cannot meet the targets assigned by the school heads. The purpose of the study was to explore the existing managerial practices of heads and their influence upon the morale of teachers. The objectives of the study were to explore: the nature of existing managerial practices of school heads; morale of primary school teachers; relationship between school heads managerial practices and teachers morale; find out significance differences in teachers’ perception on heads managerial practices on the basis of various demographics. The informants of the study comprised both public primary school heads and teachers. The study was mixed-methods and employed concurrent triangulation design. The Purdue teacher Opinionaire (Bentley & Rempel, 1980) was adapted, consisted of eleven indicators: teacher rapport with school head; teaching satisfaction level of teachers; motivation level regarding job; commitment level regarding job; rapport among teachers; teacher salary; teacher workload; curriculum issues; teacher status; school facilities & services and provision of leaves. Quantitative data for the study had been collected from teachers (n = 806) through multistage sampling technique and qualitative data from heads (n = 20) and teachers (n = 31) through interview protocols. The analysis of the quantitative data included percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent sample t-test, ANOVA and correlation, whereas, themes emerged through thematic method. Findings of the study revealed that school heads were using autocratic managerial practices. That is why the teachers had low morale as measured against the indicators: teaching satisfaction, motivation and commitment for job; teacher salary; teacher workload; teacher status and provision of leaves. The study also verified the link between the managerial practices of heads and morale of teachers through positive statistical correlation. Themes that emerged on teachers responses revealed: the strict & non-professional behaviour of heads, Assistant Education Officiers (AEOs), and Deputy District Education Officers (Dy. DEOs; consequences of strict behaviour; teacher leave, remuneration, curriculum concerns; extra workload; expectation from school heads and relationship among teachers. Themes that emerged on heads responses also reflected: the behaviour of AEOs & Dy.DEOs; consequences of strict behaviour; head concerns; leave, remuneration, curriculum concerns; extra workload, and relationship among teachers. The study recommends some remedial for the improvement of managerial practices of school heads as well as morale of teachers in the light of findings.
Gov't Doc #: 27012
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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