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|Title:||Effect of Integrated Plant Nutrients Management in Wheat|
|Authors:||Khan, Muhammad Amjad Nadim|
Agriculture & related technologies
|Publisher:||GOMAL UNIVERSITY D.I.KHAN|
|Abstract:||The present research was initiated at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during rabi seasons 2009-10 and 2010-11. This field oriented research project on the application of NPK, organic fertilizers and micronutrients was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using four replications. The sub-plot size was 1.8 m × 5 m (9 m2) using wheat variety “Gomal-8” throughout the study. The data were recorded on various physiological (leaf area index and leaf area duration at 49 & 98 days after sowing, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate), agronomic (number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, number of tillers, spike length, number of grain, thousand grain weight, grain and biological yield, harvest index), economic (benefit cost ratio) and quality (grain protein contents) parameters during the course of study. In experiment 1, five micro nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B), alone and in combination, were tested. The results revealed significant variations in most of the physiological and agronomic parameters. During the years 2009-10 & 2010-11, maximum leaf area index (3.33 & 3.49 m-2) with the highest crop growth rate (23.31 & 33.49 g m-2 day-1) was recorded with boron (2 kg ha-1) application. The same treatment also had the highest grain yield (4.97 & 4.99 t ha-1) with the highest net return of Rs. 72,483/- & 69,456/- and benefit cost ratio (2.32 & 2.14). The same trend was noticed in experiment 2 where these five micro nutrients were applied in three different methods (side dressing, foliar spray, soil application). The use of boron significantly influenced crop growth as well yield and yield components. During both the experimental years, maximum leaf area index, crop growth rate and the highest grain yield (5.17 & 5.63 t ha-1) was obtained by applying boron @ 2 kg ha-1. Among the application methods, soil application at sowing proved its efficacy in terms of time and cost saving compared to foliar spray and side dressing. The soil application of boron gave the highest net return (Rs. 88,099/- & 92,685/-) and benefit cost ratio (2.61 & 2.52) during both the cropping seasons. Foliar spray of zinc was least economical while zinc application produced the lowest grain yield (4.80 & 5.47 t ha-1) during both the 19 experimental years. The application of NPK (full recommended dose), organic fertilizers and micro nutrients in experiment 3 produced the highest crop growth rate (40.42 & 40.96 g m-2 day-1) and grain yield (4.40 & 5.29 t ha-1) during both the experimental years. Among different organic fertilizers, farmyard manure (FYM) showed better results during both the years. Similar results were noted in case of micronutrients application. Boron application improved almost all growth and yield parameters. Economically, the application of NPK (full RFD) in addition to boron was the best combination with maximum net benefit (Rs. 63,023/- & 89,671/-) and benefit cost ratio (2.17 & 2.57). On the basis of results obtained, it is concluded that fertilizer NPK (full recommended dose) should be applied for maximum wheat productivity. Among different micronutrients, boron application (2 kg ha-1) along with NPK (full RFD) enhanced the crop growth status and yield while soil application of micronutrients was convenient and effective. Organic manures are basically slow releasing in nature but must be used with chemical sources; however, the combination of FYM and NPK (half RFD) is also encouraging due to highly priced chemical fertilizers.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.|
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