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Title: Perception of Tribal People About the Merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Authors: Khan, Alamgeer
Keywords: Social Sciences
Rural Sociology
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: The University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Abstract: The present study probes the perception of tribal people about the merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Data for the study were collected through a pretested interview schedule from 384 respondents belonging to the two newly merged districts Khyber and Kurram, of erstwhile FATA. A conceptual framework comprising of nine independent variables, i.e., FCR abolishment, Jirga survival, Pashtun culture preservation, peace prospects, government taxation, women empowerment, governance, political transition, and dependent variable perception of tribal people about the merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was tabulated and analyzed at bivariate and multivariate levels through Chi-square test statistic. Kendall Tau b (Tb ) test was also used to obtain the direction and strength of the relationship. At the bivariate level, the results found that the merger was positive and highly significantly associated with the statement describing it as the best solution to get rid of FCR (P= 0.000 & T b= 0.427) as it was considered not only outdated (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.338) but also, was denying the basic constitution rights (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.303), source of corruption (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.281) and dealing people through force (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.471). In connection with the Pashtun culture preservation after the merger the results show again that the merger, on the one hand, will bring more closeness between tribal and settled Pashtun (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.414) and revive socio-cultural activities banned by the insurgents (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.347), while on the other hand, it will make a dent in gun culture (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.288) and discourge the exploitation of Pashtunwali in the name of hospitality (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.378) along with the maximum effect on Turra/glorification of warriors (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.199). However, at the same time, the tribal were found relinquished to give-up Badal/revenge practices (P= 0.000 & T b= -0.109) and development endeavours that contradict tribal honour (P= 0.000 & Tb= - 0.128). In connection with Jirga survival, the results further states that people were ready to accept the court system (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.225) despite the fact that Jirga was still less expensive & speedy (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.183), gives an equal chance to the involved parties (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.2191), ensures social control (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.292) and only available conflict resolution body (P= 0.002 & Tb= 0.050), it has lost its value over time due to members’ corruption (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.190), biasness towards women (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.190) and in more control of Maliks, wealthy and political figures (P= 0.001 & Tb= 0.184). A high signification association was further found between the merger and peace in the tribal areas through the statements such as people will be able to walk freely (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.427), access basic health facilities (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.415), education facilities (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.384) along with generating conducive environment ensuring the safety of homes (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.421), decrease in kidnapping/ robberies (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.361) and work freely at night without fear (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.389) through strong policing and security(P= 0.000 & T b= 0.353). For all that they were found ready to accept the tax system (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.237), vii including utility bills (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.268), NCP vehicles taxes (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.234) which was resisted and refused earlier (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.273). Women empowerment further was highly significantly associated with the merger issue with the hope that it will enable women to get inheritance rights (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.288), access to court (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.246), protection from custom-like Swara and bride price (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.249). However, a highly significant and negative association was found with the women issues such as honor killing (P= 0.000 & Tb= -0.097), working outside homes (P= 0.000 & Tb= -0.191) and mate selection (P= 0.000 & Tb= - 0.070). In case of a new governance paradigm highly significant association of the merger was found to the freedom of expression (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.379), free & independent media (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.333), transparent free & fair election (P= 0.000 & T b= 0.299), insurance of fundamental rights (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.307), protection from organize crime & insurgency (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.363), private sector development (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.362) and more business through tax holiday (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.387) ,through the establishment of state writ (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.372). The political transition after the merger was expected to overcome the legal and political deprivation (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.385), more representation in provincial assembly (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.342), emergence of new leadership (P= 0.000 & T b= 0.310), increase political awareness (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.406) and link the tribal people with the mainstream politics (P= 0.000 & Tb= 0.408). The multivariate level analysis further reported that females had the main concern with women empowerment while male respondents were more anxious about FCR abolishment, Jirga's survival, and peace prospects. Moreover, the older population showed concerned about the political transition and government taxation. At the same time, the young adults were concerned about the Pashtun culture preservation, Jirga survival, peace prospects, socio-economic development, government taxation, and governance. The age group, middle-aged adults, were found more concerned about FCR abolishment and political transition. At the Socio-economic status level, peace prospects, government taxation, and women empowerment were the major concerns of high socio-economic status respondents, followed by governance among the low socio economic status respondents. The study recommends that to benefits the FATA population from the merger, there is an urgent need to implement the policy, proper provision and utilization of funds, restrict to local tradition, use of Jirga if needed, well-organized security measures under the judiciary, tax holiday for some time, consultation of women, poor and other less advantaged segments of society and linking the area with the mainstream socio-cultural, political and socio-economic development.
Gov't Doc #: 25505
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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