Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/20056
Title: Ameliorative Effects of Moringa Oliefera (Sohanjhna) Flower and Leaf Extracts Against Arsenic Induced Embryo Toxicity in Mice
Authors: Ali, Kashif
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Zoology
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the protective role of Moringa oliefera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced acute (single high dose exposure) and chronic (continuous dose exposure) toxicity in mice embryo.Arsenic is an environmental toxicant to pregnant females and the developing embryo. Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. Acute exposure to arsenic induces oxidative stress and abnormal development in fetus. So comparative ameliorative effects of Moringa oliefera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced acute embryo toxicity in mice was evaluated in first experiment. Plant material was collected, dried, ground and extracted through soxhlet apparatus. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven groups (A to K) of 4 mice in each. These pregnant mice were orally administered with different doses of arsenic and Moringa extracts (leaf and flower) at gestation day-8 (GD-8) only (acute exposure). Group A was of control while groups B and C were treated with sodium arsenate with the doses A (0.00), B (6.00, 0.00), C (12.00, 0.00) mg/kg B.W. Group D to G were treated with sodium arsenate and Moringa oliefera flower extracts (MOFE) with the doses D (6.00, 150.00), E (6.00, 300.00), F (12.00, 150.00), G (12.00, 300.00) mg/kg B.W. and groups H to K were treated with sodium arsenate + Moringa oliefera leaf extract (MOLE) with the doses H (6.00, 150.00), I (6.00, 300.00), J (12.00, 150.00) and K (12.00, 300.00) mg/kg B.W. Acute exposure (6mg and 12mg) of sodium arsenate at GD-8 induced morphological changes like micromelia, exencephaly, cryptothalmia, anopthalmia and laproschisis while reduction in morphometric parameters like fetus weight, head circumference, crown rump and snout length were observed. Whereas Moringa oliefera leaf extract at a dose of 300mg/kg B.W. showed effective amelioration of sodium arsenate induced morphological and morphometric changes. Fetuses recovered at GD-18 from these experimental groups were also fixed for genotoxic studies. Comet assay was used to study the DNA damage in embryos. Results of comet assay in acute exposure treated groups showed significant protection by Moringa oliefera leaf extract (27.50±2.51) against sodium arsenate induced DNA damage 66.25±2.75 and 48.25±1.50 (comets) in mice embryos administered with 12 and 6 mg/kg BW arsenic, respectively. Co-administration of sodium arsenate with Moringa oliefera leaf extract and Moringa oliefera flowers extract ameliorated and reversed the effect of sodium arsenate on DNA damage in fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. Significantly higher(p<0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) values (36±0.81 nmol/g BW) and lower glutathione (GSH) values (8.25±0.95 nmol/g BW) were observed in sodium arsenate treated groups when compared with the control at GD-8 (22.5±0.57nmol/g BW and 19±0.81nmol/g BW, respectively).Whereas administration of 300mg/kg B.W of Moringa oliefera leaf extract normalizes the malondialdehyde and glutathione values (23±0.81nmol/g BWand 17.75±3.20 nmol/g BW, respectively) in the mice embryos. Similarly Moringa oliefera leaf extract treated groups showed significant protection (p<0.05) against acute sodium arsenate induced histopathologiacl changes in embryonic tissues such as degenerated heart, spina bifida, enlarged ventricles, incompletely developed kidney and intestine. Protective role of Moringa oliefera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced chronic embryo toxicity (continuous dose treatment) in mice embryo was also observed. Fourty four pregnant female mice were divided equally in groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K).All experimental groups (except of control) were administered orally with selected doses of sodium arsenate as toxicant (6mg/kg B.W and 12mg/kgB.W) and Moringa oliefera leaf and flower extracts as antidote (150mg/kg BW and 300mg/kg B.W) at GD-8 to GD-12 as chronic exposure. As Group A was of control while B and C were sodium arsenate (SA) treated groups with doses groups A (0.00), B (6.00, 0.00), C (12.00, 0.00). Group D to G were of sodium arsenate + Moringa oliefera flower extracts (MOFE) treated groups with doses D (6.00, 150.00), E (6.00, 300.00), F (12.00, 150.00), G (12.00, 300.00) and groups H to K were sodium arsenate + Moringa oliefera leaf extracts (MOLE) treated groups H (6.00, 150.00), I (6.00, 300.00), J (12.00, 150.00) and K (12.00, 300.00) mg/kg B.W. Significant (p<0.05) viii amelioration at dose 300 mg/kg of Moringa oliefera leaf extract was observed in sodium arsenate induced morphological abnormalities such as distorted axis, kinky tail, neck fissure, exencephaly, omphocoel, resorbed ovary, deformed axis, laproschisis and morphometric changes like fetus weight, head circumference, crown rump and snout length. DNA damage was observed in mice embryoes when arsenic was administered continously (chronic) as toxicant at dose of 6 and 12 mg/kg BW (66.25± 2.21and 85±2.94) and compared with the control (27.50±1.29). Whereas the administration of Moringa oliefera leaf at a dose of 300mg/kg significantly detoxified (p≤0.05) the genotoxic effects of the arsenic and reduced DNA damage to the level of the control (28.50±1.29 comets). Therefore, in conclusion, sodium arsenate induced teratogenicity in form of DNA damage was significantly decreased using Moringa extract especially of Moringa oliefera leaf extract. Significant increase (p<0.05) in MDA to 41.75±3.40 nmol/g BW and decreased GSH to 7.75±0.95 nmol/g BW values in sodium arsenate treated groups were observed when compared to control 25±0.81 (MDA) and 18.5±0.57 (GSH). Moringa oliefera extracts treated groups especially Moringa oliefera leaf extract at dose of 300mg/kg B.W showed tendency to normalize the MDA (25.25±0.50 nmol/g BW) and GSH (18.25±1.70 nmol/g BW). Sodium arsenate also induced the histopathologiacl changes like malformed heart, meningocoel, spina bifida, anopathalmia, cavitization in brain, poorly developed kidney and intestine in chronic exposure groups. Moringa oliefera leaf and flower extracts as ameliorant significantly reduced (p<0.05) all these histopathological abnormalities. Hence it may be concluded that Moringa oliefera leaf extract has some bioactive compounds such as phenolics, saponinis and falavonoids which have ameliorative properties. So when mice embryoes were subjected to toxic effects of sodium arsenate (potent environmental teratogens) these bioactive compounds showed effective ameliorative potential by reducing the arsenic toxicity. Key words: Moringa, Arsenic, Comet, Teratogen, kinky tail, malondialdehyde, spina bifida, meningocoel, anopthalmia
Gov't Doc #: 25494
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/20056
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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