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dc.contributor.authorJamil, Shah Bano-
dc.description.abstractThis study aimed to evaluate vocational training programs for developing entrepreneurial skills among women at Vocational Training Centers (VTCs) established by Punjab government under Technical Education & Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA). The evaluative study focused on programs with high enrollment at VTCs in Punjab established under national skill policy and recommendations. The sample of the study includes selection of districts, VTCS, and high enrollment programs. Three remote districts having backward areas were selected i.e., Bakhar, Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh on the basis of local community needs. Three programs; Advance dress and designing making, Domestic tailoring and Beautician running at VTCs in above mentioned districts were selected. The women enrolled in sessions 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 in selected programs, their trainers, and entrepreneurs certified from these centers and running their businesses in local community were included as participants of the study. Mix method approach was employed for data collection. Multiple instruments were used to evaluate VTCs through CIPP model including content analysis framework, questionnaire, categorical scale, classroom observation and semi structured interviews. In addition, to measure level of entrepreneurial skills two templates; business plan template and situational judgement test were also applied to identify their skills (management, business, technical and personal). Moreover, formative and summative evaluation of women trainees, trainers were also used as product of VTCs. Instruments were validated as per their need and nature like, pilot testing, expert opinion, confirmatory factor analysis, content validity ratio and content validity index. The numeric data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and textual data through thematic analysis. Results showed low level of entrepreneurial skills among women trainees at VTCs. ix They lacked technical skills as no relevant book was taught to develop entrepreneurial skills. They obtained very low score in business plan template and situational judgement test. Trainers were not adequately trained as per the requirement of their training program. During training women had no provision of career and counselling facilities creating issues like, financial crises to establish a business, family support and social constraints evolving as obstacles to become entrepreneurs. In spite of this if few of them start their work as entrepreneurs they faced problems like, placement and function of business, business registration, supply and demand, cost revenue analysis, management of business, record keeping, customer satisfaction and market trends. The revision in course work to develop entrepreneurial skills, viable environment to inculcate entrepreneurial skills at VTCs through engaging pedagogies with more inclusion of practical work is recommended. The government should provide soft loans to the women for starting up a new business. The provision of carrier and counselling desk at each center should be mandatory to cater the needs of trainees during training and after training to serve as an entrepreneur in the community. Keywords: Vocational Training Programs, Teaching and Learning Process, and Entrepreneurial Skillsen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherAllama Iqbal Open University, Islamabaden_US
dc.subjectSocial Sciencesen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of Vocational Training Programs for Developing Enterpreneurial Skills Among Womenen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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